Monday, October 4 2010
-Anthro became a discipline in the Social Sciences in the 19th century.
-Influenced by the ideas of enlightenment and by the romantic reaction against the
Essential Ideas of the Enlightenment:
1. Man is not innately depraved.
-thought the the control of the church was oppressive
- posited different ideas of views of the world
-church told people they were full of sin
- reformation: new ideas put out about man’s essential qualities
- church is corrupted, reformers argued that man is not full of sin!
2. The aim of life is life itself, not the afterlife.
3. the essential condition for the good life on Earth is feeing men’s minds from
ignorance and superstition.
-must free self from shackles of religious thought
4. Man, free of ignorance and the arbitraty powers of the state, is capable of progress
5. Everything is inter-connected and forms part of a benevolent Providence.
Modern forms of enlightenment:
-idea of progress
-idea of evolution
-getting rid of traditional ways of thinking
-only able to prefect self if one is rid of secular thoughts of enlightenment
-secular thinkers studied lives of ancient greeks
-truth must be neutral... to determine truth one needed: logic, rational proof (evidence),
aspire to objectivity
-reason: why does this happen?
-early anthropologists were told to be objective, ideas backed with empirical proof
-overall goal: discover what were called “natural laws” ie: predictable regularities that
govern human behaviour
-social scientists: free humanity from shackles of myth and tradition which would lead to
greater freedom and social progress: modernity -these ideas are still very much alive ie.
need for development, need to be enlightened
-Ishi was turned into an object: became an artifact to be catalogued -Trickster: limitations of objective way of thinking, Kane realized that it was hard to
reduce happenings to social facts universal truths to explain human behavior native less
interested in culture than outgroup
ie: who is Coyote?
-Kane cannot figure out who indeed is a Paiute, who is Parks, Larry?
-outsiders know more about culture than the natives?
-where does outsider curiosity stem from?
-like Czech indians, they looked to native ways of life to find something they thought
was missing from their own lives, Larry looking for community, Parks looking for
converts to Christianity
-When Kane began research, she wrote that “We still believed that cultures were initary
systems with neat boundaries. In nevada, i drew maps of clearly bounded culture areas
for my work...” (228)
“Little did I know I represented a dying trend, modernism, which was based on the
natural sciences...” (229)
-Kroeber was looking for an uncontaminated Indian, not contaiminated by modernity, by
the west, science
-greatly fuelled by the ideas of romanticism
-originator of the romantic sensibility: jean-Ja