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Lecture 6

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Donna Young

Lecture 6  EP talks about structural time on p.104. Review it. Structural Time Ecological time 104. E-P “There is a point at which we can say that time concepts cease to be determined by ecological factors and become more determined by interrelations, being no longer a reflection of man’s dependence on nature, but a reflection of the interaction of social groups” Structural functionalism:  A move beyond pure functionalism. Every human institution formed something that enabled people to survive, read through evolutionary mode of thinking.  Humans have farming because it is a way of producing, religion as a way of knowing.  First move into a complex analysis of human societies.  Not looking at human survival but looking at constitutional part of society and how that society reproduces itself.  Looking at kinship, religion, economy, etc. It is how these work to produce as a cultural whole or structural functionalism. It is the parts interconnected.  In each layer, the way each part works together becomes complex in his analysis.  EP discusses the way in which structural time works. Time is one of these cultural beliefs that work through all these things, tying them together.  People measure time according to events of significance to that group: TIME IS RELATIVE TO STRUCTURAL SPACE, LOCALLY CONSIDERED.  Time (temporal dimension) and space (spatial dimension). For EP they are connected.  Way of measuring time is ritual: Types of Structural Time: Ritual Time: marks the passage through a social system (not a natural system, based on cultural institutions): birth, age-sets, marriage, death, etc. These times in a persons time and community time is marked by ritual. Social memory, personal contact with those people. Nuer social and historical memory works the same. Oldest living member of the family and however far back their memory goes (probably the memory of their grandparents) is the social memory of the community. It is within living memory sort of even though some people may have passed on. Nuer do this through age-sets which marks a boys entry into manhood. It is marked ritually because you are receiving your garr marks (scars across your forehead happens with a significant number of boys between ~10-15 or 18). Ritual memory and given a name will have something to do with historical significant event (ex: the year of a great profit movement, the year of Darfur massacre, civil war began, etc.) Historical time is dependent on historical memory. Historical Time: Measured by age-sets. Boys enter manhood and receive garr marks. The boys’ age-set is named and recalls the historical events that were relevant when they became men. (ie The class of 2011: Named 9/11 to recall historical event) At one time, there can be living up to 6 age-sets, 7 age-sets in living memory). Each age-set passes through the generations, assuming particular responsibilities in the tribal territory as they age. The social relationships between the generations are marked. Events mark time, have a certain position in a social structure. As each age sets pass through generation, they assume particular responsibility (child: looking after cattle, old: go to war). Events mark time and have a certain position in social time. Oldest memories are the people who have in this political structure, the most authority. Structural space: related to structural time. Patrilineage AGNATES  (1) (2)  (3) ∆(4) ∆(5) ∆(6) ∆(7) ∆(8)∆(9) ∆(10) ∆(11) ∆(12) ∆(13) ∆(14) ∆(15) (1) Oldest common ancestor (2) (3) Sons. (3)(4)(5)(6)(7) Grandsons. (8)-(15) Great Grandsons The structural distance between (8) and (9) and (14) and (15) is greatest. Live furthest apart in the village as land is sub-divided between sons in successive generations. And the structural distance stretches back 4 generations to find the common ancestor. It becomes important when we think about tribal politics and feuds. Lineage and politics are woven in together. Family connections could be traced to determine political structures. EP is talking about the same thing. P. 108. Time is thus not a continuum, but is a constant structural relationship between two points, the first and last persons in a line of agnatic descent. Relationship between (2) and (13) must be measured in terms of kin. Structural distance measured by how far back in time you go. Relationships must be explained in terms of the past. Your relationship to someone else in a lineage in time. People who live closely together are related to the same family. As a particular patrilineage grows, what happens? You have more and more people. Structural distance through historically is deeper. Structural distance betwe
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