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Lecture 2

ANTB20H3 Lecture 2: week10

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ANTB20 - Week 10 Global Migration and Kinship1 • 2 predom. rules on how to study human cult./nature (1) a progressive developmental paradigm: study of cult’s as they evolve (2) a migrational/diffusionary paradigm: how they are diffused over space and time -spread while maintaining certain properties but also adapting • We have stopped looking at societies as “how we have emerged from a particular society”  we have evolved from what they are now and can now trace that movement  stopped doing this -we now know there is no socio-cult. evolution where we started off as a static culture and we have evolved (stopped looking at West. as point of modernity) -idea that we can map human beings has not gone away e.g. geneticists still trying to prove one can trace one’s ID to a partic. place in world or group movement from world • Charles Darwin -words to speak about natural world: ancestry, affinity had to use terms that were available -geneology was a word used by people of certain class and status to claim prestige: claims over land, things; geneology became a tool for ethnographic research -W.H.R. Rivers Suez-Canal expedition: tried to do cross- cult. comparison of different kinships etc; believing it would preserve cultures against “onslaught of Europ. influence) • Genealogical Model -Kinship created society (one idea - love b/w mother and child, matrilineal, patrilineal  political nation state) -occupied seemingly nat. place in Euro-American thought -genealogical model is transferred from person to person e.g. semen • Kinship is bilateral, descent is unilateral -a patrilineal society (father’s name is passed on to child) • David Schneider -Euro-American model of kinship is a cult. construct based on two logics: law and nature; one comes to u/st kinship that bio. 2 people come together and reprod. and by marriage they are a unit and create a form of kinship (family); only thing natural is the sex, what is cultural is what we think about what happens after (how we think of the child in relation to us) -anthro’s have only been studying a reflection of themselves: what is considered nature in Euro-Am. west, we take it and try to understand culture; not a comparison of like and like  if nature in west is u/st of bio and links by blood, in diff. parts of the world a relation to group may not be linked by blood • Cultures of Relatedness -anthro.’s started using culture of relatedness: local practices and statements of how people are related  nature can no longer be taken for granted -kinship is a process rather than a state of being (you are not linked to a genealogy but a person crafted and created over time via certain subt’s and people); we’re never born as daughter/son of a certain mother/poweryou can shift allegiances e.g. women don’t have to be mothers, mothers don’t have to have had children  caring can be shared • Increased Movement -assisting kinship trough new reprod. tech’s.: what is natural has become a choice  lesbian couples having children (assumed that to be a fam. was to be man and wome = child) -deterritorialization: nannies coming to serve as nannies/carers for the family (become a part of the fam. but not bio. part of fam.) • Appadurai and ethnoscapes -a lot more movement/ travel between borders: refugees, guest workers w/ different experiences ANTB20 - Week 10 Global Migration and Kinship2 -cosmopolitan traveller is diff. from the travelling worker: where you come from/gender/race/kind of visa you have (tourist, professional, 3-month farm, tomato farmers - seasonal workers) • Deterritorialization -where people come from they carry the place they came from (what language they speak, their passport, what work they can require) -how you think of yourself in relation to “them” a
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