ANTB20 Globalization, Culture, Politics
Lecture 5 Gender and the Global Factor
Orientalism- how Arab middle east is seemed to be through certain cultural representation and
stereotypes and how gender is seen through the lens of the director and how western free liberated
woman go to a place where it is assumed that the place are subservient to men and oppressed, and
these stereotypes are reproduced and maybe being challenged or contested
For Sex and the City II, look at this lecture’s material as well as Said and Appadurai, do not use every
Khalid ‘looking eye’- research to maybe include in paper
Orientalism is a part of the national representation of the cultural ‘other’.
Auto-orientalism, is when people internalize the cultural representations that others have of them, we come
to see ourselves through the eye of the other and reproduce this behavior.
Said’s point was that whereas Europe created stereotype of the other, the power shifted to the US, as their
cultural ideas are ‘global’ and have a certain reach.
What is sex vs. gender?
Sex is biological and gender is a cultural constructed.
There may be 3 sexes, those born with penis, vagina, and both.
Gender is social/cultural construction of femininity and masculinity, partly taught and partly
Gender stereotypes can lead to devastating effects.
o For example males are better than girls- in certain places, babies born that are girls are
killed. Girls are seen as a burden, for example, in some countries when girls are married the
girls’ family must give a dowry thus this is a burden and parents kill the daughter at birth.
o Unequal nature in jobs, in some places men are only assigned certain jobs or paid more for
certain jobs. In the workplace there are more male bosses than female bosses, and there are
stereotypes of female bosses as they are ‘living in a man’s world’ and have to behave more
o Patriarchy assumes that at the end of the day even if there are women in power, the
dominating force is still men who make the rules. Women have to abide by rules made by
o If men don’t behave as men or women do not behave as women, they can be victims of
o When a man violates a woman, it is immediately horrible, but if a woman violates a man, a
man is supposed to take it, and there are also cases where when a woman is violated, she is
supposed to take it.
A woman was raped, tortured, and died due to her injuries, and the male she lived
with was badly injured as well in India.
Sex and Gender
Sex is generally associated with ‘nature’ and gender with ‘culture’.
Gender traits and attributes become naturalized in ways that associate what is ‘culture’ (gender)
with ‘nature’ (sex).
Different forms of heterosexual norms become naturalized, internalized and practiced as self-
disciplinary forms of power.
A woman is to be submissive, caring, and docile.
A man is to be strong, intelligent, and a provider.
What is naturalized and cultured becomes associated with sex, he is boy, he has a penis, this is how
he should behave, she is a girl, she has a vagina, this is how she should behave. Achieving ‘Natural’ Beauty
With Photoshop, we can create representations that are not real but virtual, real is a way where we
try to achieve this perfection.
This happens from a young age exposed to advertisements of the beauty industry.
Man or Woman?
What does it mean to be a man or woman?
‘Sex’ and ‘sexuality’ can also be seen as socially constructed and performative.
o We can have sex changes and reconstruct ourselves as a different sex or as the ‘other’ sex.
o A man can be very feminine or a woman can be very masculine in a sense being defined by a
group of people who define what masculinity and femininity is?
How would one perform hetero-normative masculinity/femininity?
o The idea that everyone should engage in heterosexual relationships. The idea that a man and