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Lec 1-Intro to Primates.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

1/10/2013 Introduction to Course Primate Behaviour (ANT B22H3) • This class will introduce you to the behaviour, biology and ecology of non-human primates Professor: Dr. Joyce Parga (prosimians, Old & New World monkeys, and apes). TA: Erica Tennenhouse By the end of the course you Required Textbook and will know… Readings • Primate taxonomy & geography • Strier, K.B. (2011) Primate th • General primate traits Behavioral Ecology, 4 • Characteristics of different primates edition, Pearson. • Understand key concepts and terms used • 3 journal articles are also required reading (see your in primatology and animal behaviour syllabus) – Some examples: - Kin selection - Contest competition - Sexual selection 1 1/10/2013 Grading Elements Exam Questions • 2 midterms (ea. worth 30% of course grade) • Exam questions may be multiple-choice, matching, T/F, and may also contain fill-in- • Final (worth 40% of course grade) • Final will be cumulative the-blank and short answer • Exam questions will come from lecture, readings and films • Questions about exam content should ONLY be asked during lecture Class Announcements and E-mail Grades • Course announcements and marks will be • First check your syllabus for info posted on Blackboard • Can e-mail me or your TA with questions, but please refrain from asking “office hour” type questions via e-mail 2 1/10/2013 How to Classify Primates: Course Prerequisite Taxonomy • Course prerequisite is being enforced Kingdom: Animalia • ANT A01 will aid you in understanding Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia concepts in this class There are many orders within the class Mammalia, such as: Rodentia Chiroptera Cetacea LagomorphaCarvnivora … and many other orders, including: Order Primates Primates: General Characteristics • Large brain relative to body size • Binocular vision (stereoscopic vision) – different hypotheses for why 3-dimensional arboreal environment “visual predation” hypothesis - earliest primates were probably insectivores 3 1/10/2013 Primates: Post-orbital bar (cranial feature) General Characteristics • Nails instead of claws • Opposable thumb • Divergent big toe • Dermatoglyphs (fingerprints) • Clavicle (collarbone) • Post-orbital bar (a cranial feature) How to classify primates: Prosimians: Taxonomy General Characteristics Kingdom: Animalia • Small-bodied (all smaller than 10 kg) Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Primates 2 Suborders:Prosimians Anthropoids - Monkeys - Apes - Humans 4 1/10/2013 Prosimians: Prosimians: General Characteristics General Characteristics • Chemical communication via scent-marking • Toothcomb (modified common (olfactory communication) incisors and canines) • Grooming claw on 2d toe • Tapetum lucidum Geographic distribution of Prosimians extant prosimians • Lemurs, lorises, pottos, galagos, tarsiers • Restricted to Old World (Africa, Asia)- see map from pg.44 of Strier text 5 1/10/2013 Lemurs Lemur catta (Ring-tailed lemur) • Female dominant • Troop size can be as large as 30 animals • Diurnal…? • Only found on the island of Madagascar • Many vocalizations • Many are nocturnal, some are diurnal, others (howl, bark, purr, mew) cathemeral (active during day and night) • Sexually monomorphic • Some species show “female dominance” RTL Barking • Some examples of different lemur species… Eulemur species (“True” lemurs) Varecia variegata (Ruffed lemurs) •( Eulemur macaco, E. • Give birth to litters coronatus, etc.) • “Park” infants • Cathemeral • Have multiple nipples • No clear sex-dependent • Live in small family groups dominance • Loud alarm calls • Some live in small family groups, some groups larger • Some sexually dichromatic 6 1/10/2013 Indriids and sifaka Hapalemur & Prolemur species (Bamboo lemurs) • Avahi, Indri and Propithecus • All are folivorous (eat leaves) • Cathemeral • Largest of the lemurs • Bamboo “specialists” • Primary mode of locomotion: • Consumes high levels of vertical clinging and leaping; cyanide in bamboo bipedal hopping on ground Daubentonia madagascariensis Mouse lemurs, dwarf lemurs, (Aye-aye) fork-marked lemur • Ever-growing incisors • Family Cheirogaleidae • Insectivore • Nocturnal • Elongated middle • Mouse lemur is the finger to tap on wood, smallest living primate uses ears to listen for • Fat-tailed dwarf lemur
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