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ANTC17 Feb 6 lecture.docx

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Mary Silcox

Feb 6 lecture - Ar. kadabba o multiple sites between two time periods o volcanic material to do dating - Ar. Ramidus o Well dated to 4.4 mya o Material described by tim white - Ethiopia o Eastern/northern end of Africa o Star sites ar. Kadabba material o Very dry and lots of erosion - Ar. Kadabba o Older of two species o 2004 -> added some more teeth o has a fairly primitive looking canine and premolar arrangement o modern apes sharpen or hone their canine against their front most premolar o ardipithicus had a honing complex o sahelanthropos didn’t have a honing complex  not sure what means  sahelanthropus is older o not much their to make an argument about bipedality o missing front of tibia, etc o have proximal toe phalanx ( slide 7)  proximal attaches toe to foot  determines what the joint relationship is o Human and ape feet designed differently  Ape -> grasping o Foot is dorsiflexed when you’re taking a step  If you’re an ape, plantarflexion is more important o Toe bone seems to look like “homo” o Relationship of being bipedal is not as one to one as one would like - Ardipithecus Ramidus o 110 specimens from a min of 36 ind o slide 9 -> “ardy” o 3 ft 11 inches tall o 110 lbs o incredible fragility o took 15 years to get adequately prepared o heavily flattened o was it bipedal?  Pelvis  For humans -> shape of illium is different  For ar. Ramidus illium seems short and broad like human  Gludeal muscles sit in back and act as extensors -> animals  Has laterally oriented ilia  Seems to be stable biped  Pelvis seems very human like  When in upright position, hamstring muscles have beter pull for human  Ramidus looks like a chimp with respect to this aspect  Would not have been effective when pulling leg back as a modern human o Would have been such an effective biped when talking about the pelvis o Big toe is abducted -> ape  Oriented more like our thumb than our big toe -> ardipithecus  Suggests animal that spent time in the trees  Chimps have more flexible midfoot  We can’t fold our foot around a branch  Doesn’t f’n like a human foot o Foot more rigid than an ape o Hand is significantly different than chimps  Wrist very rigid -> chimps  Ardi. -> carpal bones much more flexible  Thing that was compared is the “capitate”  Angle to the bone  Ardipithecus didn’t knuckle walk but supported weight on palm like a monkey o Body proportions different than chimps  Reconstructed intermembral index  (Length of humerus + length of radius) /( femur + tibia)  Pan = 105  Homo ~ 70  Ardi. = 90  Wouldn’ t have been to take long steps  Didn’t have long forelimbs like the chimps  Unexpected o Head is in poor shape  Needed to be ct scanned and reconstructed  Cranial capacity -> female chimp o Teeth  Canine larger than modern human  Evidence that there wasn’t a lot of dimorphism in the canines  Humans very dimorphic  Very little variability in the size of the canine -> much less than humans and chimps  Thickness of enamel – red is thick and blue is thin  Look at slide 25  Thick enamel helps with eating abrasive food items  Australopithecus have big back teeth  For a small body size -> lucy has big molars o Difference from chimpanzee o Environment -> aramis in Ethiopia o Def
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