- OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH PRIMATE -> THE POINT OF THE CLASS
- Evolution: Descent with modification
- History, mechanisms, and process
- What is a species? Theories of speciation
- Basic genetics
- Primates relationship to us
What is evolution? How does it work?
- 5 most important aspects of human evolution that explain how evolution
o Variation already exists in a population
o Survival of the fittest
o Natural selection ***
o Sexual selection
o Descent with Modification ask for what this is
- Who does evolution act upon?
o Not upon individual but population
o Natural selection acts upon the individual but overall it is the
What is a species?
- A group of creatures which breed together and produce viable and fertile
o May be quite similar in appearance (deer) or quite variable (dogs)
A muel they are sterile
A liger lion and tiger
Species are difficult to nail down. They can be similar in
appearance like deer can look very similar or they can look
totally different, like dogs poodles and chihwahwa can
produce a viable offspring
o May all live in one part of the world (polar bears) or in many parts of
the world (right whales)
Geography sometimes play a role in species but not always
o Share behavioral traits relating to social groups, food preferences,
reproductive strategies, etc.
Species have a shared behavioral and social grouping, meeting,
eating, etc. but they typically associate between them and us.
We know there is species but they dont necessarily conform to
this. Example: giraffes ones from one place and the other
place wont mate although they are same species, because they
have different mating ritual.
o Distinguish between members of own species and others o Where do we as humans stand? Are we same species as them?
Different forms of evidence
- It was published for the first time in the 1859 by means of Natural Selection
- He published later in life because he was afraid. He says human origin in
Decedents of Men.
- How did he become confortable in publishing?
- Genesis (Adam and Eve creation theory)
o Everything was made in 6 days
- Before the enlightenment period, every culture around had its own creation
theory. America thought people came from the mud etc. main creation theory
in the West was Genesis western world of scientific thought. Pre-
enlightenment period was dominated by Adam and Eve idea.
- The technology they had after they got kicked out of Garden they learned
how to deal with metal or iron etc. this will be important in learning tools
- This is the stage where we see enlightenment period. This was religious
where everything was made in 6 days
History of Origin
- ArchBishop Ussher 1650AD
- Origin of the Earth and therefore humans based on his interpretation of the
- He decided to figure out by analyzing bible how earth was made. He looked
at different generation and gave average of 20 years. The world must be
4004 B.C. on October 23 . someone else later found out that it was 9am.
England, it is when school starts.
o Georgy Cuvier
If only 6000 years old, then global and violent catastrophes to
explain canyons, mountains?
When this first came out, it was considered almost real. They
were colonizing the planet. A lot of scientist were interested in
geo, and so was Cuvier. He started to notice that if you look
around you, they are actually changing today. Something like
rivers are eroding cannons as we speak. It was considered
right. The only way to explain things like mountain building
was thru the idea of catastrophe. This was one point of view
during enlightenment period.
o Reverend Burnet (1681AD)- He started to focus that there is also slow
erosion by water, wind, and iceUniformitarianism
- Starts with French named Buffon 1749 AD
o to learn about the earth, study the earth processes are known,
natural, and observable
o He had to retract the statement for being fear of persecuted.
- Then Hutton (1788AD) said the same thing but he worked out that it has to
be hundreds of thousands of years old, not just 6 days. He said the earth was
slow working, uniform, and natural processes
- Lyell after 100 years after Hutton, measured how long the Delta was born.
He said earth had to be at least 100 000 years old by saying present is the
key to the past
- There was change in attitude. People started allowing. Chalmer published
that maybe it was Ussher that was wrong, not the bible.
- Meanwhile, Linneus (1758) looked at Comparative Biology in different
animals to see which species were related one another. He was properly
quantified. He named the species, including Homo Sapiens
- Comparative biology
- He categorized humans amongst animals. He implied that we