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Lecture

ANTC17 – W2.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC17 W2 - OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH PRIMATE -> THE POINT OF THE CLASS Outline - Evolution: Descent with modification - History, mechanisms, and process - What is a species? Theories of speciation - Basic genetics - Primates relationship to us What is evolution? How does it work? - 5 most important aspects of human evolution that explain how evolution works o Variation already exists in a population o Survival of the fittest o Natural selection *** o Sexual selection o Descent with Modification ask for what this is - Who does evolution act upon? o Not upon individual but population o Natural selection acts upon the individual but overall it is the population What is a species? - A group of creatures which breed together and produce viable and fertile offspring o May be quite similar in appearance (deer) or quite variable (dogs) A muel they are sterile A liger lion and tiger Species are difficult to nail down. They can be similar in appearance like deer can look very similar or they can look totally different, like dogs poodles and chihwahwa can produce a viable offspring o May all live in one part of the world (polar bears) or in many parts of the world (right whales) Geography sometimes play a role in species but not always o Share behavioral traits relating to social groups, food preferences, reproductive strategies, etc. Species have a shared behavioral and social grouping, meeting, eating, etc. but they typically associate between them and us. We know there is species but they dont necessarily conform to this. Example: giraffes ones from one place and the other place wont mate although they are same species, because they have different mating ritual. o Distinguish between members of own species and others o Where do we as humans stand? Are we same species as them? Different forms of evidence Darwin 1859 - It was published for the first time in the 1859 by means of Natural Selection - He published later in life because he was afraid. He says human origin in Decedents of Men. - How did he become confortable in publishing? Pre-enlightenment period - Genesis (Adam and Eve creation theory) o Everything was made in 6 days - Before the enlightenment period, every culture around had its own creation theory. America thought people came from the mud etc. main creation theory in the West was Genesis western world of scientific thought. Pre- enlightenment period was dominated by Adam and Eve idea. - The technology they had after they got kicked out of Garden they learned how to deal with metal or iron etc. this will be important in learning tools and humans - This is the stage where we see enlightenment period. This was religious where everything was made in 6 days History of Origin - ArchBishop Ussher 1650AD - Origin of the Earth and therefore humans based on his interpretation of the bible - He decided to figure out by analyzing bible how earth was made. He looked at different generation and gave average of 20 years. The world must be 4004 B.C. on October 23 . someone else later found out that it was 9am. England, it is when school starts. Geography contribute - Catastrophists o Georgy Cuvier If only 6000 years old, then global and violent catastrophes to explain canyons, mountains? When this first came out, it was considered almost real. They were colonizing the planet. A lot of scientist were interested in geo, and so was Cuvier. He started to notice that if you look around you, they are actually changing today. Something like rivers are eroding cannons as we speak. It was considered right. The only way to explain things like mountain building was thru the idea of catastrophe. This was one point of view during enlightenment period. o Reverend Burnet (1681AD)- He started to focus that there is also slow erosion by water, wind, and iceUniformitarianism - Starts with French named Buffon 1749 AD o to learn about the earth, study the earth processes are known, natural, and observable o He had to retract the statement for being fear of persecuted. - Then Hutton (1788AD) said the same thing but he worked out that it has to be hundreds of thousands of years old, not just 6 days. He said the earth was slow working, uniform, and natural processes - Lyell after 100 years after Hutton, measured how long the Delta was born. He said earth had to be at least 100 000 years old by saying present is the key to the past - There was change in attitude. People started allowing. Chalmer published that maybe it was Ussher that was wrong, not the bible. - Meanwhile, Linneus (1758) looked at Comparative Biology in different animals to see which species were related one another. He was properly quantified. He named the species, including Homo Sapiens Linneus 1758 - Comparative biology - He categorized humans amongst animals. He implied that we
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