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Lecture 5

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC17 W5 - Scientific-based paper - Title - Listing of subheadings - Under each subheading what you already learned and what you are planning to write in that section - Thesis can change - Each will have different approach to this report. - You will have to go find actual report on fossils whether it was a male or female. Then you will compare measurements of fossil. All primary science reports will have listings of things they worked on - Try to be focused and narrow - Focused on the fossils – bones and - Outline should be a couple pages. Like a paragraph of what you intend to talk about and what you have found in each section - Half page of summary of 4 articles you have already read - Single-spaced… she is very strict - Outline can be double-spaced Lecture Homonoids and Homonins Specialized locomotion Fossil specimens: simiiformes, hominoids, hominine Hominoids - Higher than homonin - Great Apes but also includes lesser apes - Great apes = humans, small apes, gibbons o Humans (homo) o Chimps and bonobo (pan) o Gorillas (gorilla) o Orangutans (pongo) o Gibbons (hylobates) Homonins - Humans, Pan, and ancestors - Lesser apes branches earliest (homininae), then Ponginae. Pan represents chimps and bonobos. Humans and our ancestors come between them and before that. Hominoids - How would we identify the hominoids verses monkeys or lemur/lorise? - Large bodied - Hominoids have post-orbital plates - Tailless (sacrum) - Quadrapedal - Arboreal - Some tool use - Teeth o See if it has 2:1:2:3 dental pattern because all hominoids have that dental pattern o Most have very large canines o Y5 cusp - Modification to the Humerus o All hominoids has a distant end to the humerus o A rounded hand – what turns your elbow o Cats lack this capitulum, but all hominoids have it How do we determine hominine verses hominoid? - Being bipedal - DNA - How would we recognize them versus monkeys or lemurs/loris? Hominins - We know that we have very little evidence to differentiate the two, so we need to look at DNA, and look if they have bipedal. - Genetics gives us time frame. Because we share 98% of DNA we can observe it. - Homo + pan + ancestors of both - Genetic studies 5-8 MYA - Share 98% of DNA - how do we identify them verses other hominoids? Hominoid specialized locomotion - It has longer arms than nails. Long finger bones but not really feet nails - It was a spensory ape - Orangutan – equal length of legs and arms o Grasping hands o Specialized locomotion o It needs to use its hands to move itself thru the jungle - Knuckle-walking: specialized terrestorial quadrapedal o Means their feet are not as curved as other suspencory apaes but their hands are o We use ratio of arms and legs and curviness of arms and legs to determine them - Humans o We stand up to walk around without using 4 legs and hands. o Legs are longer than arms o Short and stiff longer back but it is curved o Enlongation of heels o Complete modification of foot bone Bipedality Evidence of being bipedal - The location of the hole in the skulls o Gorilla – terrestrial quadpedal, so the hole is at the back. Same with orangutans and beaver o Humans are in the center - Human legs are angles whereas apes are straight o Head of the femur is much larger because it has to hold the weight in only 2 legs instead of spread in 4 o Neck between the head and feet are smaller - Pelvis o Human’s is horizontal direction - Human’s curvature in the cervical area in the neck and the lower back – allows us to stand up straight Laetoli footprint - Toe is on the other side - Humans have corresponding arch - Picture in the laetoli o In volcanic ash that would have hardened right away o There was 2 individual - Habitual bipeds because one foot goes right in front of the other Anatomical evidence ** - Hominoids o Dental pattern * same for old world monkeys too o Y5 cusps o Elbow joints (capitulum) o Tailless o Evidence for specialized locomotion - Hominins o Pan? Homo? Genetics suggest looking at 8-5 MYA o Bipeds – location of FM, angle of knee, pelvis morphology, foot morphology, curvature of spine - Typically find the multitude of primitive and derived traits together Differentiating extant apes - Orangs : suspensory apes and thick anamel - Gorilla and chimps: both knuckle walkers and thin anemel. similar so they share genes - Humans: bipedal and thick enamel Earths Climate - Dashline that runs in the middle divides ice and ice-free - Adaptive radiation o Small primates moving around o Some diurnal some nocturnal - We have what we think of mass extinction in Oligocene just because of the fact we cant really find fossil in this period - Hominoid adaptive radiation - Late Micene – we are missing one continent – Africa. We don’t know why they are missing Oligocene – Anthropoids - 36 – 24 MYA; After Ida - Period of global cooling and drying and mass extinctions - Only find fossils from this period in the Fayum Depression in Egypt (maybe Spain) - Environment: warm, wet and tropical - They now have post orbital bard, and fingernails but still chill around on the trees - There ar
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