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Lecture 6

ANTC17 W6.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

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ANTC16 W6 Midterm - Much more focused on details of short answer on lecture materials than textbook. Majority of details 100% come from lecture - Most of specific date will come from lecture than textbook, and more short/MC answers Lecture Outline: - Models of behavior: great apes and modern hunter-gatherers - Who were the Australopithecines Models of behavior - Homologies o A trait shares by 2 or more species thru inheritance from a common ancestor - Analogies o Trait shared by 2 or more species that is similar in function but unrelated evolutionarily o Will focus more on. Certain traits that use common ways of dealing with same environment or process that they need to deal with. The other aspect that we use is uniformitarianism = primary source of assumption o i.e. human arm bat wings butterfly eings Extant apes Behavior/social organization/fossils? - Sexual dimorphism in Gorillas: harms - Lack of sexual dimorphism in Gibbons: monogamous pairs - Large canine teeth: male competition over females - We try to come up with correlation between behavior and social organization fossils. o It is hard and almost impossible so we need to rely on these methods o Analogies are very important o Great apes like gorillas anatomy behavior sexual dimorphism is like harem-like behavior. Large males with large teeth and small females with small canine are always going to be in harm and all sexual behavior will be dominated by males - Austrophelus o How is it similar to gorilla o We found many boyseye(sp?) males are bigger in size and teeth than females Chimpanzee - Similar behavioural patterns of o Continual sexuality o Friendship o Food sharing o Territoriality - There are complex behaviours and both humans and chimps are complex species with 5 MY of separate evolution - Not shared genetics for these complex behaviors What we share with chimps and a common ancestor is: Closest analog to humans - Social interaction based on individual recognition - Strong bond based on family relationships - Long term friendships o There is some in gorillas but not as much. Like look at cats, they dont really do that - Sexual consciousness o Continual sexuality - Mutual care within the group o Food sharing - Recognition and defense of the group o Very territorial - Human/chimp separated 5 million yrs ago so not much shared genetic traits, but these were probably already present in common ancestor - It reflects what we assume that we split from chimps. If we both do these things, then so did austropehlus - What we share o The first 4 traits together applies that they were family-based. They would go out and come back to home group based on kin. *** o They would look after each other if one gets sick Hunter gatherers - Definition *** - What does it mean to be HG, why do we use this as model? o HG rely on nature for their subsistence o No farming or domestic animals except dogs o They are highly mobile, hunting in seasonal cycle o Small groups of nuclear families o Follow animals/herds o Egalitarianism with strong sharing ethos no set leader, and the only division of labour is btwn sexes o They live as our ancestors did until 12,000 YA / agricultural revolution o uniformatarianism o Neolitic revolution put an end to us to be HG. We want to look at how this population live off landscape how these past issues survive 2 most famous ethnographic studies - !king o bushmen of Botswana Africa studied by Richard Lee and Harvard Expedition - nunamuit o of Alaska studied by Lewis BInford who focused on ethnoarchaeology and subsistence strategies Dobe !kung - Lee studied demography, kinship system, health, diet, disease, hunting practice, mobility, etc. there - The gods must be crazy movie - Moved around in the landscape. There was man hunters and most of the anthropological study what was remarkable in the study was they went in there thinking that all the things they consume were from hunting like meat. But majority of calorie came from women gathering. Womens gathering was not credited back then. While it was called Man Hunter, it should have been called Man Hunter Women Gatherer. This is taken for granted today but was a great discovery back then - couldnt develop the social ideological aspect of culture. - picture boiling energy to get sickness out of him - picture cave art. This is info we are trying to get at interms of social behavior. What is the sourt of data we can get at? Stones, bones, fossils, etc. but we will NEVER get their ideology, belief system etc *** nunamuit - Binford developed ethnoarchaeological approaches - Started 2 things o Processual Archaeology movement (quantitative nature of sci approach of studying archeology) people were more interested in change of pottery etc. he was interested in what hunting strategies at the site. o Zooarcheology Study of animal bones hunting strategy and sub sistent strategies - Map showing where he went o Seal coat and complex social interaction o Red dot where he studies famous for hunting caribut, and there were remains of bone to study how they were butchered. They could also move to coast. good area to study modern HG - Model seating plan o Go out to hunting camp with men and draw how they sit around camp and socialize. They sit around the fire . when people eat bones, they would toss behind them which is called the toss zone o Drop zone - ??? missed o He can come up w
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