Early Archaic Homo sapiens
- Fits the right timeline to be Homo erectus but not really
- We see that we have classic H erectus form spreading all over Asia
- Who is in Africa at this time? Ergaster
- It is found in a lot of different location and everyone wants to name it
differently so there has been a big conflict. Each different has the different
Archaic Homo sapiens
o Africa, Europe, Asia – all different names
- Asia is being occupied by Java man, Africa by rud (sp), etc. Maybe instead of 3
different species there is 1 maybe.
- They don’t make it to the deserts of Africa, Arctic Africa, South America,
Australia, etc. They cannot cross these harsh environments. (Related to what
Homo sapiens can do and not do)
The Vostak Ice Core
- Cold, but this graph is more about the variation
- Warm and cold stages
o We think that most migration occurred more freely during the period
that is shown in green because the whether must have been warmer
- Majority comes from Spain
- Have the hallmarks of what is going to be sapiens and Neanderthals.
o H erectus – sharp pointing in the back
o H Neanderthals – there is a little bun
o H sapiens
- About the same size of brain, height, etc. It has the hint of postinterior bun.
- It started developing traits of full blown Homo sapien – chin and forehead –
- Extremely sexual dimorphic
o Males 200lbs and 180cm tall
o Ultimately what we are trying to get at
o Associated with Acheulian tool industry (been around for at least
million years, untouched). We also found that they have cutmarks on
their skulls which suggests either:
They were cannibals
They were getting into ritual – modification of dead
Fascinating complex ideology and belief system very
o Same hearing as we do
If so it could lead to the same culture
o Lateralization of brain Based on morphology of hand, their right hands are more
robust than left, which implies the lateralization of brain
- Looks like Homo ergaster, just has bigger brain
- Still quite robust looking in face (pronounced brow bridge, head bun (feature
that are clear ancestor of Neanderthals)
- We find evidence of these all the way from England to Greece and
continuously occupying most of Europe.
- Atapuerca – you have to crawl for 2 hours and find 100s of fossils
o How did these get there?
Massive flood put these in the back
They were intentionally carrying the dead in this place
If this was the case, this could show ritual
- Many people want to lump them altogether for heidelbergensis as ancestor of
both Nean and sapiens.***
- Still using Acheulian-like industry
- Been associated with red ochre in France
o Special because it is used in cave art – red symbolizes blood –
identifying group. Very socially symbolic item.
o Recently, study showed that maybe red ochre was just for hunting
- Instead of having clear bun in the back, it has little curl in the back –
morphology that made people say it is not a human ancestor.
- Huge date range
- It could be Homo heidel
- Bigger brain than ergasters, looks like erg
Multiregional vs. Out of Africa
- How do we differentiate what is going on? There are 2 models that Homo
erectus eventually becomes Homo sapiens. Do they do it regionally? Or out of
Africa? There are 2 theories
o Multiple origins
o After erectus left Africa, they maintained the genes thru gene flow.
Gene flow is what maintained it ***
o The dotted lines in the picture shows the gene flow
o Erectus in Indonesia evolved to sapiens in Indonesia
o Criticized for looking at traits that fit his model
o Mungo man – belongs to lineage that died off – that means there are
still la lot of information that we don’t know of
o Many Europeans must still have some Nean genes in themselves
o We would see genetic bottleneck 2 mya once erectus leaves Africa…
*** prof doesn’t think there is enough DNA to say for sure - Out of Africa
o DNA study showing the likelihoodness that Africa has more genetic
variation so they have oldest homo sapien lineage.
o Lineage 1 moved around in Africa then left to Lineage N, then east to
Asia, then Europe, then NA and SA.
o Basics needed for test
o Homo sapien envolved in Africa, leave, then replace all other species –
they don’t interbreed. Walpoff’s theory says they DID interbreed and
Krings et al, Neandanthral DNA
- Noticed that they compared the genome sequence, there was too much
variability and not enough for overlapping
- Suggested that the last time humans and Nean shared genes was 300-800
- Recent study – 1-4% of Nean DNA stil exist…***
o In New study they studied genome sequence in across Europe
o With modern sample was predominantly African. If you take out
African sample, we get 1-4% admixture.
- As population left Africa and went to middle east, the Nean in MA were
interbreeding, so humans took their DNA and went to Asia. But the ones that
had Africans don’t have Nean DNA.
- Must be possible because there is 1-4% DNA
- What would you expect them to look like?
o One specimen from Portugal (a child) that has traits that are linked to
Nean, but dated after Nean disappeared
- Retraction and expansion of glacial period
- Interestingly they are found in Middle east regions like Iraq
- Dating techniques are getting better because they are from around the same
- The earliest specimen found was small and pathological (whole idea of
caveman is being bent over. It turns out that the fossil we found happened to
be old man.) They have health big body with bigger brain than us