- What is the most number of species that was identified before Koobi Fora
- What are they
- Points to Africa and say and we have to look at Apes – there are 2 apes in
Africa and only 1 in Indonesia
- This was just one view – we might take it for granted but at the time it was a
- Today we will look at a family that studied in Indonesia
Haeckle – convinced that ancestor would lie in far east
- Dubois*** his student
- Dubois was a young anatomist that became an anatomist, then took his
family and went to military school in Indonesia. 2-3 years after he found
incredible remains (top of slide – hemur…) he knew it was old because it was
fossilized. This had hallmarks of being an old human – large head and large
brain. Immediate reaction was that
o They had large brain
These specimens together have been called Javaman
o This was found in Indonesia so it opened ways to study in Indo
- Neandetherals are also biped and they have human-like traits. There are still
debates on it though.
- British were jealous that they were not finding human ancestor remains.
So Piltdown said he found cranium bolt.
- He glued back the pieced together and also found mandible. Thing that was
intriguing about it was that there were only molars showing.
- Piltdown man had large brain and a VERY robust jaw like man. It has
dentition like row-rounded. We now know that this is particular the largest
- He miraculously discovered canine – had human-like head, particularly
robust canine, and robust mandible
o Function of dentition wouldn’t work this way though
o This made other scientists look closer at it and it was not only varied
in same place but they were different things.
o It was a medieval human skull, fossil orangutan mandible, and chimp
- At the same time, Taung child was discovered. They thought it was a bigger
discovery but this was something else. So academic community said instead
of having large brain first it was bipedal first, so they rejected this as human
ancestor at first.
- Javaman was the earliest of human erectus form - At about 2.5 million years ago, you see adaptive radiation – spread of many
different species living in same area where you normally only find one
species in one space. There is 1.5 million years overlap
- 2.5-3 million years ago earth was moving to pilocene boundaries – beginning
of great ice age. Exactly what we see in adaptive radiation when see major
shift. We see extreme drying –desperate time for species. On the very right
side, there is rapid change and variability in the environment.
Olduvai gorge and early homo
- It is not easy to see traits and distinguish them. And it is difficult to tell traits
that is similar to each other and hasn’t developed completely yet.
- The Leaky finds
o Boisei at Olduvai Gorge
Post orbital constriction
We thought this was the next step in human ancestor because
it was found with bones and tools.
- Homo habilis
o We know it is older than 2.2 million years ago because it was found
7m below Bed I.
o It was found with post cranial remains
o We need to find muscle movement in order to make stone tools
OH24 and OH5
- Oh24 Twiggy
o Some parts of it is missing
o Precision grip
o Important how much less post orbital – this means there is expanded
- If compared OH24 and 25, twiggy is smaller, but much larger brain size
- There was debate when twiggy was found because
o We had to compare them to what trait was already known, and there
was only 2
o They said Twiggy was Austropithecine because it has small brain
o But it has more important hallmarks that is close to human
Larger incisor (interior dentition) which means it is becoming
Tear things like meat
Lack sagittal crest (meaning large jaw is lacking)
And because brain is larger we need a lot of protein
- Maybe it is early homo erectus form
o But when compared twiggy and homo erectus, twiggy is so much
smaller although they are very similar o Early homo has weird traits that it has particularly long arms which
means it was spending time in trees. But H. erectus was completely
That was East so far. Now moving onto South