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ANTC17 W9.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTC17 W9 - What is the most number of species that was identified before Koobi Fora - What are they - Points to Africa and say and we have to look at Apes – there are 2 apes in Africa and only 1 in Indonesia - This was just one view – we might take it for granted but at the time it was a big thing. - Today we will look at a family that studied in Indonesia Haeckle – convinced that ancestor would lie in far east - Dubois*** his student - Dubois was a young anatomist that became an anatomist, then took his family and went to military school in Indonesia. 2-3 years after he found incredible remains (top of slide – hemur…) he knew it was old because it was fossilized. This had hallmarks of being an old human – large head and large brain. Immediate reaction was that o They had large brain  These specimens together have been called Javaman o This was found in Indonesia so it opened ways to study in Indo - Neandetherals are also biped and they have human-like traits. There are still debates on it though. - British were jealous that they were not finding human ancestor remains. So Piltdown said he found cranium bolt. - He glued back the pieced together and also found mandible. Thing that was intriguing about it was that there were only molars showing. - Piltdown man had large brain and a VERY robust jaw like man. It has dentition like row-rounded. We now know that this is particular the largest scientific fraud. - He miraculously discovered canine – had human-like head, particularly robust canine, and robust mandible o Function of dentition wouldn’t work this way though o This made other scientists look closer at it and it was not only varied in same place but they were different things. o It was a medieval human skull, fossil orangutan mandible, and chimp canine - At the same time, Taung child was discovered. They thought it was a bigger discovery but this was something else. So academic community said instead of having large brain first it was bipedal first, so they rejected this as human ancestor at first. - Javaman was the earliest of human erectus form - At about 2.5 million years ago, you see adaptive radiation – spread of many different species living in same area where you normally only find one species in one space. There is 1.5 million years overlap - 2.5-3 million years ago earth was moving to pilocene boundaries – beginning of great ice age. Exactly what we see in adaptive radiation when see major shift. We see extreme drying –desperate time for species. On the very right side, there is rapid change and variability in the environment. Olduvai gorge and early homo - It is not easy to see traits and distinguish them. And it is difficult to tell traits that is similar to each other and hasn’t developed completely yet. - The Leaky finds o Boisei at Olduvai Gorge  Post orbital constriction  We thought this was the next step in human ancestor because it was found with bones and tools. - Homo habilis o We know it is older than 2.2 million years ago because it was found 7m below Bed I. o It was found with post cranial remains o We need to find muscle movement in order to make stone tools OH24 and OH5 - Oh24 Twiggy o Some parts of it is missing o Precision grip o Important how much less post orbital – this means there is expanded brain - If compared OH24 and 25, twiggy is smaller, but much larger brain size - There was debate when twiggy was found because o We had to compare them to what trait was already known, and there was only 2 o They said Twiggy was Austropithecine because it has small brain o But it has more important hallmarks that is close to human  Completed dentition  Larger incisor (interior dentition) which means it is becoming more generalized  Tear things like meat  Lack sagittal crest (meaning large jaw is lacking)  And because brain is larger we need a lot of protein - Maybe it is early homo erectus form o But when compared twiggy and homo erectus, twiggy is so much smaller although they are very similar o Early homo has weird traits that it has particularly long arms which means it was spending time in trees. But H. erectus was completely biped. That was East so far. Now moving onto South StW 5
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