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Lecture

Origins of Hominoids and Hominins

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Winter

Description
Originsof Hominoids and Hominins February-08-12 1:13 PM Pliocene8-5mya - Sahelanthropustchadensis Homonoidsv.Hominins Climate ○ 6-7myainChad - HomonoidTraits - CoolingandDryingevent ○ Lakes,rivers,forestedandwoodedgrasslands ○ Apes(LesserandGreater) - Retreatofrainforests ○ Smallteethincl.canines,flatface,thickenamel ○ Y5Cusppattern,2:1:2:3 - ~7-6mya ○ Lessprognathicthanlateraustralopithecines ○ Postorbitalplate - Evolutionofbipedalism ○ Nohoningpremolar ○ Forwardfacingorbits - PotentialmassextinctioninOligoceneof ○ Largebrowridges ○ Lackof tails primates ○ Foramenmagnumwellforwards ○ Largebraincomparedto bodysize;largebodysize - WarmingperiodinMiocene=hominoid - Orrorintugensis overall adaptiveradiation ○ NorthernKenya Quadrupedal,arboreal(typical) Increaseddiversity ○ 5.8-6mya ○ ○ ○ Sometooluse ○ Colonizationofplanetbyapesexcept ○ Mixedwoodlandsandsavabba - Hominins Africa;goingintothePliocene ○ Largeheadon femur,butalsolongneck ○ FromPanand Homo/Ancestors reappear ○ Ape-likeincisorsandcanines ○ Hardto differentiate Oligacene ○ Thickenamel  DNAorBipedalism - Aftertarsiiformes - Ardipithecuskadabba - Identifytraitsbasedonfossils,homonoid - Fullblownprimates,stillarboreal ○ 5.8-5.2mya ○ Presenceofbar,plateonskull - 36-24myo ○ AwashValley,Ethiopia ○ Eyesfacingforward - OnlyfossilsfoundinFayumDepressionin ○ Forest ○ Lookingformolars/dentalpatterns Egypt ○ Honingpremolar  2:1:2:3 - Environment ○ Thickenamel  Y5 ○ Warm,wet,tropicalAfrica ○ Toesbonesuggestsbipedalism  Lowroundcuspsand largecanines - TypesofPrimates - Ardipithecusramidus ○ Sacrumlackinga tail ○ Oligopithecids ○ 4.4myainAwashValley ○ Capitulum  Similartotarsiiformes ○ Forest  Roundedbulbthatallowsforrotationof  ~35mya ○ Ape-liketraits:thinnerenamel elbow  Mostprimitive ○ Inbetweentrait:caninesandmolarslargerthanhumans,smaller  Correspondstothetrochlea ○ Parapithecides thanapes - Identifyinghominins  2:1:3:3 ○ Humanlike:Lackshoningcomplex,FMforwardtobaseof skull ○ DNAtimeframefromseparation  Laterformof Oligopithecids ○ "Ardi"oneofmostcompletefossilancestorsfound  98% sharedDNA;5-8mya  SplitfromNewWorldMonkeys ○ Lesssexualdimorphisminspecies,indicatessocialbehaviour ○ Evidenceofbipedalism □ How?  Movementtopairbonding  PositionoftheForamenmagnum ○ Propliopithecids ○ Opposablebigtoe,despiteapparentbipedalism  Arm/legratio  ~32-29 myaancestral  Appearstousefeetforarborealaction □ Bipedalism=longerlegs) Catarrhines  Ifthisispart ofthe split,thenithintsthatchimpanzee  Curvatureofspine
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