Class Notes (835,491)
Canada (509,211)
Anthropology (1,586)
ANTC17H3 (22)
Lecture

Australopithecines

2 Pages
53 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Winter

Description
Australopithecines February-15-12 Australopithecines Australopithecine/Paranthropines 1:13 PM ModelsforBehaviour:Modern - 5.5- 1MYA (Pliocene,partofPleistocene) - Bipedal - Lumping - Largebodied ModelsforBehaviour:Great Apes Hunter-Gatherers Orrorintugensis,ardipithecus, - Tailless - Homologies - Subsistonwhatisnaturally available;noagricultureor schelanthropus - Partiallyarboreal Traitsharedbytwo ormore domesticationasidefromdogs InAustralopithecinessamethingoccuring - Possibletooluseandfire speciesthroughinheritancefrom - Rapidcoolinganddrying,transformationofthe Seemstobevictimsofthesetoolsbut acommonancestor - Highlevelsofmobilitybecauseofa world unclear - Analogies searchforfood,huntinseasonal cycles - Grassforming,adaptationforitsconsumption - 2:1:2:3; Y5 Traitsharedbytwo ormore - Nuclearfamilieswithinalarger - 5myabipedalismismorecommon - Thickenamelandsexualdimorphism speciesthatissimilarinfunction Occurspartiallybecauseoftransformation SpeciesStudied:PrimitiveAustralopithicines butunrelatedevolutionarily group - Usetheideaofuniformitarianism - Egalitarianism ofclimate - Anamensis Onlydivisionoflabouris Mediterraneandryingup;landbridge ~5mya - Typecorrelationsbetweenanatomy betweenthesexes Breakingupandshrinkageofforests EastAfrica andbehaviour Creationofamosaicenvironmentwithmore Apelikedentition Ex.SexualDimorphism=Harems; - Foodsharing Lackof sexualDimorphismin - Entirepopulationofh.sapienswere openareaswithforestpatches Smallfrontteeth,largebackteeth H-Guntilabout12,000 yearsago - Theclimacticchangeresultsindisappearanceof Paralleldentalrows/notparabolic Gibbons=monogamouspairs; foodsources Brain~300cc Largecanineteeth=male withagriculturalrevolution Changeindiet=changein dentition Almostlikebipedalchimpanzees competitionoverfemales - Examples Gorillamodel=P.Boisei Dobe!Kung-Bushmenof Smallercanineteeth,lessdimorphism - Bahrelghazali BotswanaAfricastudiedby inrelationtoteethatbeginningof ~5mya - Chimpanzees Pliocene Chad Sharedtraitswithhumans RichardLeeandtheHarvard Developmentofspecialists;different Modernlookingdentalarcade(parabolic) Continualsexuality-lackof expedition estrus Multipleindividuals fromhistoricadaptationsofprimates- Afarensis livingforatimeofupto whichisofgeneralists ~3mya Friendship-partofsocial - MostlyE.and S. Africa EastAfrica behaviour threeyears - Apelikebrain "Lucy" Foodsharing-Contradicts Lookedatvarioussocial andbehavioural - Bipedalontheground FoundnearleatolibyJohnHanson ideasaboutsurvivalofthe practices - Curvedfingers;stillsometimesinthetrees "Firstfamily" fittest;sociallybased Bipedalism Debateasto ifAfarensisor Territoriality-Aggressivein "Manthe Hunter"- - Nolongerasmuch timeintrees earlyhomo territoryprotection Assumedthatall caloriesmenwere Grassprescence?Toolargefortrees? Allthreemarkersforbipedalism 5mydivergence;traitsprobably consumingcamefrom Advantages Disadvantages PrimarilyfoundinHadar alreadyexistedinacommon Extremesexualdimorphism ancestor hunting,butmajorityof Handsfreefor Morelikely tobeseenby Size,inscisors/canines Everythingfromthesplit caloricintakecame gathering/carrying predators fromthewomen U-shapeddentalarcade onwardwillhavethis, gathering Expendingless Unabletorun quicklyand Pronouncedbrowridgesandextremepost including calories;more efficiently orbitalconstriction australopithecines Datathat wecan't - Moretraitsshared applytoan efficientforlong Veryprognathic archaeologicalsituation walking Flaringcheekbones Socialinteractionbasedon isideologicalbelief GracileAustralopithicines individualrecognition Coolingmechanism Exposessoftunderbelly - 3.9-2myain East Africa;3.5-2.3myain South Strongbondbasedonfamily systems Seegreaterdistances Interfereswithabilityto relationships NunamuitofAlaskastudied africa byLewisBinfordwho forsafetyandforaging changedirectioninstantl- Erectbipeds1-1.5min height Implicationofhomebaseswith whilerunning - Apelikeskull,largerbrains groupsgoingoutto getresources focussedon - Morehumanlikedentition andcomingback ethnoarchaeologyand Abilityofmalesto Unable toadapt when Longtermfriendships subsistencestrategies helpwithchildrearing limbislost Species: ProcessualArchaeology - Africanus Sexualconsciousness Abilitytofollow Backproblemsand SouthAfrica Mutualcarewithinthegroup Quantitative herbivoresaround circulatoryissues Limemine Recognitionanddefenceof approachto - Typesofbipedalism: debrisand TaungChild group artifacts Slowbipedalism Jouvenillewithbabyteeth Habitualwalking,notquickly Endocastimageofbraincase Hunting Noticedwhenstudyingh.erectusand Mrs.Ples strategiesbased onhowmanyand recognizinghowtheycanrunquickly Thoughttobean adultwoman,but whatkindof unlikeaustralopithecines isactuallyayoungmale Fastbipedalism Firsttobecalledan australopithecus boneswereata Fastrunning,associatedmorphology Notacceptedrightawaybecauseof site Zooarchaeology thepiltdownmancontroversy
More Less

Related notes for ANTC17H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit