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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 notes for antc23h3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

Lecture 2: ANTC23H3 - Intro to Non-Human Primates - Primate order o Humans, apes, monkeys, prosimians o Don’t need to memorize chart (but help) o Everything above tarsiers are prosimians o Txtbook talks about a lot of species o Questions will be very generalized  i.e give me three characteristics of oldworld/newworld monkeys - Anthropoids o We are anthropoids o Lemurs o Prosimians o General traits  Larger bodies than prosimians  Larger relative brain size than prosimians  Reduced reliance on smell (visual communication more important)  Lemurs/prosimians trust sense of smell  Almost all are diurnal  Life history  slower life history than prosimians  Take more time to sexually mature, live longer, have longer gestation lengths o Apes  Chimps  Gorillas  Orangutans  Gibbon  Siamangs  Great apes -> chimps, gorillas, orangutans  Lesser apes -> gibbon, siamangs o common chimp  pan trigolodytes  may fight over fruit  don’t use sex as a form as reconciliation o pygmy chimp  pan paniscus  bonobos  females get treated a lot better  could be good true and false question  alpha female  same sex can be sexually attracted to each other  lessen tension  not as aggressive as chimps  sex used as greeting o gorillas  found in single-male multi-female and multi-male, mutli- female groups  silverbacks are the oldest most dominant group males o need to know genus/species name o orangutan (pongo)  semi-solitarily  almost look like sub-group  intense male/male competition  males large in body size compared to females  forced copulation  cheek phalanges  see it a lot in orangutans  female very small  females usually go along  sometimes it’s forced copulation o gibbons/siamangs  considered monogamous  EPCs occur
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