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ANTC32 W 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chris Krupa

ANTC32 W 5 We have to unpack how some things that we value in the world has to do with us Tilly - It is no accident how power became the core of what state is. He says state is organized crime. Creates problems then demands a solution. This is critical why we have states and why states are bad - Creation of problem and saying that you need a protection - Where does problem come from and what Tilly adds to the question of legitimacy is that the violence is hard to think of just cultural thing. It is more of an obedience thing - No war, no state o If we look back in European history, people didn’t say “let’s make state” and started taxing people. They instead started wanted to control territory to acquire wealth. This singularly prosperous landowner. The foreseers. Then war becomes central principle for these wealth grabbers. o How do you make war? You need resources. Then how do you get these resources?  Just seize them (kill the king and take his stuff)  Sell asset  Convince or coerce those who have resources to hand them over to you o Tilly says the last one is the best one in terms of making the machines.  Then how do you do last things?  You try to convince them. And if they give you resources tell them you will give them more money. You also need to tell people who are not rich  origin of taxation. The expensive war machines trying to make profit that continue war. You must hand over something. So you will get something back, like roads or schools. Gift of chief expanded into the form of war.  State system – the way to ensure the stakehold that will channel resources to war machine o However this creates problems  Then how do rich people get their stuff back?  Then you tell them that they will have access to Honduras’ banana plantation. Guaranteed access to certain places with potential business aspects. But this in turn brings more war and violence. This is cycle  To the not as wealthy, tell them you will protect their lives and what they have.  But this becomes organized crimes that you are trying to solve. This also creates class society – some people get wealthy and some don’t.  Right of certain things – right to create social structure. Creating unequal social structure and policing that this problem creates. Foucalt “biopower” - Argues that biopower has 2 poles o Body as machine o Body as species – survival - Biopolitics is combination of power and rule but work on through the body. Body becomes site of discipline, regulation, etc. - We tend to think of power as negative force and oppressive/destructive. But what if we think of power as positive force in terms of productive? Not limiting us but encouraging us to do positive things and motivate us? We become instruments of our own domination - This distinction is what he maps out. One he calls the right of death and power over life. He says that these 2 things today work hand in hand that for the most part, sovereignty, tends to work thru death. Right to decide life or death. Political social existence is mind to take at will. This power to impose death has extractive measure. Ultimate symbol is public execution. Putting power by putting someone to death. - How did this work? o Anatomic form  Disciplinary and mechanism movements  Productivity  Link between expansion of capitalism and economic/political power. Sending bodies to factory and producing more products. They can make it work in a way such to optimize its output. o Biological  School, military, etc. makes all bodies more effective in hands of state  Knowledge of community became object of government. You can administer people in a way. Life and death stats, and knowledge and power work together as site of knowledge that can be more vital.  Through forces of body and optimizing - Death penalty on p. 80 o The idea of violence shifted from performing absolute right to kill from maintaining the health body penalty o Prisoners still have this under a logic that this person is a threat to the society, not to the king o Protecting the value of American people and the way of life. Investing in life - The law lingers on because this state of power – death is ultimate thing. With life something new has emerged – the norm. the norm starts to take over from the law. The body becomes sites of investment of power; the idea is for us. - When we even go to work, school, being normal (being quiet and teacher speaks) this is normalized technique. This is under the manner of respect. But violence is still laid upon that the prof has right to give you bad mark. So we are normalized. Profound shift of how power starts to work Corrigan and Sayers - Moral regulation is the dominant class in society that encourages certain
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