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ANTC32 W12.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chris Krupa

ANTC32 W12 - Whatever reality we might be mapping out here, what we are talking about is part of the image, that characterize it and convey an image that spring to mind. Thereby invokes its opposite, there IS a place where people are naturally citizens and law is rightly observed. There are images and identities that binds relationships - This is where Columbia naturally implicitly happens. This justifies relationship between so-called margin. - Image of region translates to people that actually do live there - Sort out who is who and how they are related to one another. Obscured by another and by the name and identity they absorb and how they relate to one another is essential. It is hard to sort out who in fact is who. Let’s try to do demographic mapping of main characters of the story - Campensino, Cocalero, and Colono o Sometimes used together and sometimes separately o Campesino: resident of country, link to the world to possible relationship to the land like owning and growing crop land - Colonos /cocaleros (coca growers)  without colonizer there is no colonized o Colonos: colonizer, not specific term because it doesn’t have deep natural belonging in the region. They pass through – they are highly individualistic because they want to make money and leave quickly. They don’t care much about the area. If I am the state, why does this term matter? They don’t even care about this area, they want to make money and leave, so why should we build schools for them? The name justifies the state negligence, sort of. - 1880-1940: suddenly catholic missionaries are very interested in low-class people. These missionary ended up building a road and themselves were the first to say that “if other white and European and people that represent center come here they will make things better and have bigger influence on this population” so they promote immigration. Once that happens, the settlers ask what is for them. Quinine (malaria medicine) which fits with the idea of tropical landscape that cures disease. Rubber was good methology. People in the center and beyond was reading the image of civilism and needed violence to control. They romanticized violence on these people that apparently civilized uncharted area. It is hard to tell which country was which, where border was. People from the center and military – they ask “holy crap, this part of the country is my country too?” this is vastly different area to them. Are these images ones that construct within the image too? Yes there are images that circulate within these images as well, and tell people about their experiences. This is also a period when roads and other things were built for military pursuit for strategic ways. - 1930-1960: there was a La violencia in the highlands here. Violence temporalizes this area. La violencia (the violence). There is rivalry between Liberal and Conservatives. When one is in power they prosecute the other party but no party is formally allowed to. They are kicking people off like peasants that live off the land. It is just fleeing violence or because the C are taking over your land so what do you have to live off? So the state tells them to go there and take over that marginalized area because they think there is no one there and they don’t care. Offset any reflection how imbalanced they were by using Putumaya as release vowel for tensions in the tension, allowing violence and expanding land holdings to expand. P offers safe heaven for this. Being a Colono in this situation means you just occupy the lands and these people are not legally recognized although they hold onto that land. - 1963-1977: Oil exploration, major investment in lowland in Latin America. Texico led this development which was supported by the state, saying if you go down there, there is brilliant NA company and there will be a lot of money. So people go there to make money and be migrants there but they find that the most labor is imported, and their initial goal is unfulfilled and kinda get stuck there without much to do. Much population is unemployed where these roads lead to industrialization and they expect state to do something - 1977-1987 – Columbia doesn’t have much coca growing history as much as Peru or Bolivia. Before this period they grew crops and now coca comes in and it provides better livelihood. Coca reaches high point and stabilizes, and attracts migrant workers that are looking for money and want to produce coca. This is map of history of colonos. Some key points: altho depicted as rootless, recent arrivals, with no investment in area, some ppl have been there for a long time like 2-3 generation in this area, but as a whole they are seen as being transitory and migrant. Also, this is heterogeneous, everyone don’t do the same things and don’t even have same relationship w coca economy. Landowning migrants who came early and established productive enterprises, they grow some coca but also crow animals etc. they are large ___ - they mainly hire other ppl to do work on it. Then they have small coca growers that are landless workers. They all come in different times and have different relationship to other workers and coca production. Altho there is a single identification (on place), it is still diversified in relation to history of migration. [Large self-coca farmers  small growers  landowners - Campesino - illegimite right to be there with transitory relationship. - Cocalero – identity imposed upon by the state. People that has to do with production of coca. If you are associated with Campesino it is stigmatized as being illegality and criminality and identifies a place outside the law. That identity itself becomes relationship with criminality beyond the control of the state – given up the right to have rights. The way this became and taken on as collective identity by the movement and took as their own as meaningful symbol as collective movement. Certain identity drawing from some ways but becomes identity by what is termed outside political. Reshapes what counts as politics. Image of place/people - Becomes the basis of re-imagining the fraction. Without understanding the identification you cannot understand who emerges. - What do we know about their history? History also linked to La Violencia – there is history in which diff elite families in the liberal/conserve rivalry came to form defence groups like private security contractors to defend them. Basically forming private security companies. These communist parties that helped organize these peasants into armed groups to protect their own land. We have communist parties that try to form them into some kind of land ownership and not be persecuted as threat. Then start to move around and organize other people. Small pockets of other groups trying to defend liberal links and is linked to communist ideology. They start to coordinate. After Cuban revolution, identification of them as communist caused stigmatization so state hunts out these communists as they are threats or something to the date. Origin has gurarian defense. They live off the land. Armed Colonization – origin of this in period of LV, in post 1959 on attack on communist they coordinate themselves and go to P and build self defense zones in lowland. There is period of operation that is on attack of these strong holds. Then get identified ans they are trying to form the overthrow of the state. The story generally follows this pattern. Rural people that try to defend their land are marked as communist and they form organized guerilla movement. They think, if you’re going to mark us then we are going to ACTUALLY form a group. State targets repression then they actually institutionalize themselves that is from social movement to national movement (sp?) - FARC: revolutionary armed forces of Columbia. Trying to protect peasants to live off the land. Armed maintenance for small holders to survive. They go into deeper Amazonian area to colonize the land there. Farc – in Amazonian region, there is ambiguous relationship with these people, defending their interest. The question of what kind of influence… whether these people voluntarily joined or not is hard to discern. The state comes to see Colonos/cocalero and FARC as linked to be Guerillas. This relationship is ambiguous from the start though. - We have local state (mayor), central state and military, and US. - Paramilitary groups: - Drug traffickers: created plantations. They didn’t build things – if you grow crops you have to have ways to sell it, so build roads. They say we will give them seeds and bringing markets like food (social welfare) and offer they will sell them for them. Air strip forms their own assassin, draws in more workers and so on. We will actually give you something you can live off. How do they talk about it as to why they grow coca? For economic survival. Th
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