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Lecture 2- May 14.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

ANTC61 – Lec 2 – Tuesday, May 14 , 2013 Medical ANT: illness and healing Anthropological perspectives  More is at stake in the interpretation of illness than a set of medical practices o Need to watch diet and lower sugar levels (medical things), but there are other social things in his life to pay attention to, and other non-medical things for him to do, to be able to do those meical things o Disease isn’t always only medical practices, involves other things o Medical side: problem with overlapping issues- may miss things -dr should be aware of what patient is doing outside of medical things  What does illness mean for ANT, and how it’s diff from biomedical perspective -Paper due- may 21 , work with something you can write more about later. Typed 2-3 12point font. Medical encounter -fieldnotes  What is health? o Physical and mental well being o “all the things you do to live a long life” o WHO: not merely the absence of disease and infirmity buy complete physical, mental and social well-being. 1. Health is connected to social life o Health is relative by age – what is healthy for 20 y/o isn’t healthy for 80 y/o -ex. 80 y/o grandpa had parkinsons etc, but considered “healthy” for his age o Cochlear implants for death - -some considered healthy, nothing wrong with being death – should they have the implant? o Being alive well o Alberta – eugenics movement – low IQ = disabled and sterilized (can’t have children) -how health is defined changes 2. Health is an elastic concept o foods we eat make us healthy/not o exercise (taichi) o vitamins o being unhealthy isn’t always about disease- but the things we do to stay healthy 3. Varies cross- culturally o all the things that you can do to live a long life (malawi) o how can we be healthy if the land is not o a constant balance between ying/yang o accumulated resistance to potential dangers -get sick, but get better fast  Allan young (1988) – medical ANT o his ideas have been used throughout ANT, less now. but informed way we think of medical ANT. o There are diseases separate of social life, diff btw disease and illness o Disease is critical for function of biomedicine, used in DSM-4 for diagnosis of mental disorders o Illness: experience of symptoms and suffering through the social networks perception  Kleinman’s contributions 1. assumed superiority of biomedical knowledge o Biomedical knowledge is always historically contingent (leechcraft)  medicine is always changing – what is medical now may not be later on o superior ways of knowing the body – imaging technologies  cat scans, MRI, ultra sound, blood work  Ex. Baby due dates- mothers predict due dates better than ultra sounds  Can’t always give technology superiority to understanding bodies o Biomedicine is objective and unbiased  Lynn payer  Prescriptions btw UK and France  UK had less surgeries than france and Germany  France talked about livers all the times  Germany blamed heart for fatigue *massive differences with perspectives  Irrational prescriptions  Drs prescribes other than disease, rather with gender/culture/class/race etc  Casesearean sections  C section vs hospitals vary – diff drs have diff opinions  Very different perspectives from different drs. With bio-medicine 2. The disease symptoms shape the illness experience  Leprosy (disgigurement-ostracism) o Leads to social things that wouldn’t happen with disease that is more hidden (stigma) o Ex. India – leper colony, divorce, o Ex. Sri Lanka – isolate self (married, but won’t go out) o Ex. Nigeria – no social difference, just live life as they have o How we interpret symptoms and how we think about them is contingent on location/history etc  AIDS (wasting, dementia – sexually immoral) o Advancement in symptoms – those familiar = obvious (thin, irrational)  Endometriosis (infertility – lose of sexual desire) o scarring of uterine wall o how you describe disease can shape relationship and how we understand them o cross-culturally varies 3. Illness makes moral sense of disease  caused by replicated cells  exposure to radiation and different toxins/environmental pollution, heredity, alcohol  what replicates cells can be social o fate o industrialization o pollutants o genetics o foods, GMO o Technology (cell phones, microwaves) Zambia*they believe in disease, bacteria causes infection, but also believe just because those things happen doesn’t mean there isn’t moral responsibility for disease to occur -if company dumps toxins in your backyard who is at fault? – company -disease exists, just beyond the individual – social/moral implications
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