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Lecture 12

ANTC61 Lecture 12.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Peter Skrivanic

Lecture 12Wednesday March 30 2011220 PMAnthropology and Global HealthHow should medical anthro position itself with respect to public health initiatives and development campaignsCooperateComplementCritiqueSocial forces underlying global distribution of diseasesHow has the present world been shaped in relation to health There are social forces that have shaped the current world Where do we begin Capitalism isRonald Wright The rapid colonization of the New World allowed European countries to be flooded by gold and other minerals This prevented European collapse The result was new ventures new technologies and new foodstuffs from North America resulting in production surplus Theres a population boom in Europe and the colonies It provided the capital necessary for Industrial Revolution which allowed expansion into more parts of the world The concentration of wealth in one part of the world comes at the expense of another part of the world There is a complicated interrelationship between health economic growth and the development of disease According to many measures health ahs improved in the West but it has gotten much worse in other areas Disease burdens are increasing even within certain pops in NAGlobally poverty and powerfulness are two significant factors of disease The poor tend to be sicker have greater rates of accessibility and have less access to resources The greatest risk factor for many women is being married These are political and economic issues and biomedicine is not the primary way of addressing these problems Having the tools is not enough you must be able to connect people to thosetoolsMedical anthro seeks to articulate the way in which local health problems are groundedin larger processes of political economy and ideologyCritiques of DevelopmentIn the early 20th century the Rockefeller Foundation was involved in development in Latin America Since 1942 the US has been involved in development all nations are on a trajectory of development en route to becoming more like technologically advanced Modernization theory Western nations was extremely popular Modernization could be thought of as increasing rationalization and centralization WeberIn the 1950s development initiatives were a way to help underdeveloped nations catch up through aid and tech transfer economic loans and agreements as well as public health and sanitation campaigns Part of this was to create a new market for first world goods by developing consumer classesModernization theory came under strong critique Scholars pointed out the problems in the underdeveloped world were createdin the same processes that created Western health Therefore the countries do not need to be catch up because theyve been made this way Many development initiatives have actually contributed to the entrenching of unequal relations between developed and Developing nationsIn Africa many nations attained independence in the mid20th cent Govts took on loans to develop but the oil crisis lead to defaulting on loans and decreased trading GDP d
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