ANTC67 – W4
- There are 4 pdf’s and you need all
- Silverton 1 and 2 must be read – file was so large that they broke down in 2
- Silverton Narrative – history of what is going on
- Assignment 1 is a report in full sentences with 500 words or 2 pages.
Anything like graph can be in Appendix.
- APA referencing
- 5 scholarly references – no Wikipedia
- A scholar goes to the cemetery and transcribes all deaths that occurred
around 1918 and compiles some info.
o Allan Ernest: Husband and the son of someone. So you will not find
the sex on the sheet. You’ll have to use the identifiers that are explicit
with the name. He is 47 and died on October 27, 1918. He died of flue
and lung complications. You need to know when and how he died.
o Buck Wilma: female, died on Oct 25, age about 30. She was a
prostitute. Some info is not given. It gives info on occupation.
o Burgoyne George: it matters WHERE he died.
- There are a lot of men engaged in certain activities. You have occupation,
birthplace, death place, etc. There can be markers for wealth.
- Cite the articles too.
- Create a database in excel, have columns that define the date, sex, etc. You
should have same data because we all have same assignment. But remarks
should be different.
- Trench burial – means wealthy * not sure if this is true… confirm.
- When does the first week begin? You will have to look at all deaths and set
- Read the prof’s article posted online – will help with exam.
- Refer to how to write a report, not to plagiarize, etc.
- Every graph must have a title, labeled X and Y, consistent font, etc.
Pettenkofer (an alternative view on the origin of cholera)
- He drank cholera – found out that cholera itself doesn’t cause cholera.
- He was the main individual at the time that advocated slightly different
- Epidemiologic Interactions, Complexity, and the Lonesome Death of Max von
- A. Morbia
- American Journal of Epidemiology 166: 1233-1238
o Very famous journal in epidemiology o No need to read for the exam but
- von Pettenkofer’s complex mode of thinking sank into oblivion even though,
in hindsight, germ-environment interactions are more appropriate than is
bacteriology alone for explaining the occurrence of cholera epidemics in
- The fate of von Pettenkofer’s theory with modern lenses can benefit today’s
quest for deciphering the causes of complex associations.
- He recognized the interaction of germs and environment. He said that
environment played important roles in how certain pathogens played out.
Just because you have a microorganism – it is not situated with vacuum.
There is physical and social environment. Physical environment is important.
His Theory *** exam
- Pettenkofer’s Boden theory of cholera followed: in order for an epidemic to
occur; four conditions were essential. [i]
o a specific germ
o certain local conditions
o certain seasonal conditions
o certain individuals conditions
- Pettenkofer’s investigations focused primarily on the second and third
- A man is pooping and it goes into soil. Whatever the germ is being deposited
in the soil (the physical environment) the material putrefies and comes up as
mesomatic kind of bi-product. It comes up in the air and the individual
inhales and make a disease. That was his Theory.
- You have to have the right soil conditions. The importance of the
environment is what he was emphasizing. Primary Source: Gibraltar- a letter
- I arrived here yesterday (16th April) … aid in asking the following questions:
- In Gibraltar there was a huge disease that killed a lot of people. He arrives in
Gibraltar after epidemic and seeks info of:
o What is the quality,
o The order and thickness of the several strata of the soil etc. in
different parts of the town,
o From the surface to the first layer impermeable to water.
o (These are all what Snow was asking.)
- What is the different between Snow’s explanation of cholera and Pettenkofer’s?
- I want the fullest possible information as to the existence and quantity of
sub-soil water (ground water), springs and superficial wells (if any) in the
- I want particulars of the variations in the water-levels in wells etc, a) in the
different seasons of the year, b) for a succession of years (maxima and
- How is Gibraltar supplied with drinking water
- The chemical analysis of drinking water
- The drainage of the town
- In what state is the sewage and scavenging of the town, and how is the offal
(especially excremental matter) removed from the different habitations
o I want the medium temperature, the range of temperature and the
amount of rainfall in every month during the years 1864 and 1868
o I want statistques of the cholera – fatal or otherwise in Gibraltar,
showing the death rate of each house and of the town, separately and
o Dr. Max de Pettenkofer
o Professor of Hygienic of the University in Munic, in Bavaria
- Great plaque – he was trying to ward off a plaque. In that beak he would put
perfume-like substances, so it would prevent miasmatic odor and substances.
- Grave tomb – the ones with name were rich and the ones with no name was
poor. Buried in trench
Crisis Mortality *** exam - Sudden and dramatic increase in mortality occurring from a single triggering
source over a very short period
- Famine, floods, war… these things can also cause epidemic disease
- Opportunism: some people are susceptible and some are not, and people
- Scapegoat: pointing at someone and saying “you spread the disease”. Putting
blame on someone because they are thought to inflict a disease
- Creation of board of health
- Soup kitchens and charity
- Break down of the family and kin
- Fear and anxiety
- Imposition of quarantine measures
- Loss of civil liberties
- Spiritual salvation
- Traditional values may be lost
- Increase in cost of food and provisions
Why study Epidemics
- When epidemic b