Class Notes (806,820)
Canada (492,456)
Anthropology (1,560)
ANTC68H3 (58)
Bryce (14)


7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

ANTC68 WINTER 2013 Lecture #5: Stigma, Cholera and Leprosy  Stigma o Lot of good different definitions o Greek: A permanent mark that brands someone as a criminal/traitor/slave o Goffman (1963)  Attribute that is deeply discrediting, process of negative discrimination against people with certain physical, behavioral, or social attributes, difference between person’s internal characteristics and outward supposed perception  Internalization of stigmatized characteristics, self fulfilling prophecy o Jones et al 1984 – social psychologists  Stigma is an individual thing, less than whole, how society identifies a deviant condition that initiates stigma process  6 Dimensions of Stigma  Concealability – is it noticeable? Can you hide?  Course – is characteristic reversible?  Disruptiveness – how does it impact interpersonal interactions (mental competency is low)  Aesthetics – does it evoke disgust?  Origin – how condition came into being, level of perceived responsibility; moral dimension  Peril- feelings of danger induced in others o Crocker et al (1998), social psychologists  When an objective characteristic of a person leads to negatively valued social identity  How a person sees themselves depends largely on social context  Some “diseases” are valued – epilepsy is valued  Standards of beauty: Fat  Skinny o Kurzban and Leary (2001); evolutionary psychologists  Based on natural selection, why it persists – perhaps for adaptive reasons  We want to increase reproductive fitness – propagate our genes  Avoid the following:  Individuals who provide little social benefit  Out-groups that are inferior  People with contagious diseases o Link and Phelan (2001); sociologists  Focus on six interrelated components (societal forces)  Labeling – seeing something as different ANTC68 WINTER 2013  Stereotyping – connect differences with negative characteristics  Cognitive separation – exclude stigmatized (“us” vs. “them)  Emotional reaction – both in stigmatizes (fear) and stigmatized (shame)  Status Loss/Discrimination – stigmatized less valued by society, treated unfairly  Power imbalance – one group has power (social, economic, political) to hard stigmatized o Consequences of Stigma  Internalization: person starts to see themselves how they are treated  Perform less well because fear of being judged and confirming the stereotype  Stigmatizes assume role because everyone else does  Negative stereotypes are reinforced  Performance anxiety  People distance themselves from stigma as coping strategy  Not getting a promotion due to racism  Leprosy – dissociate themselves from limbs  Delay health-seeking behaviors, treatment  Stopping antibiotic treatment in case someone notices  Increases spread, progression of disease  Devaluation of Stigmatized  Themselves (Intentional – self mutilation; unintentional – learned helplessness)  Society – become invisible; stigmatized forced to margins of society  Discrimination – job loss, eviction, denied services  Why don’t they just help themselves? Modern discrimination and racism, marginalization  Distrust of health authorities – non compliance in cholera epidemic in Brazil  Unequal treatment of groups – psych disorders not covered by insurance  Distorts risk perceptions – can lead to mass panic, misallocation of health resources o Most Stigmatized Diseases  HIV/AIDS  Moral dimension to illness; because transmission is sexual or from needle sharing  Perceived as “voluntary”  Contagious (therefore dangerous)  Psychological Disorders ANTC68 WINTER 2013  On one hand, seen as dependent and helpless  On the other hand, seen as difficult and unpredictable  Obesity? Next highly stigmatized disease? o What to do about Stigma?  Protest – boycott negative portrayals in media  Education – replace inaccurate beliefs with facts, public announcements, lectures, books, movies, help stigmatized with strategies to deal with shame  Contact – meet someone from a stigmatized group, see them functioning, tends to be most effective method  Cholera o Caused by bacterium Vibrio cholera o Up to 90% of cases are either mild or no symptoms (but can spread to others) o 508% of cases experience moderate diarrhea o 2-5% “cholera gravis”  Severe, profuse watery diarrhea  Rapid loss of fluid, electrolytes  Cramps, convulsions, shock, death if not treated o Without treatment: about 50% of cases die o With treatment: 1-2% case fatality o Mechanism:  Bacteria produces a toxin in intestines that interfere with booth’s water regulation  Fluid seep into intestines and out of body  Spread through contaminated water  Relationship with stomach acid – those with low acid have worse effects from cholera (elderly, children, people on antacids, malnourished people)  Death happens very quickly o Treatment:  Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)  Mix of sugar and salts to restore electrolyte balance  Keep person alive long enough to let natural immunity take over  Intravenous Therapy (IV): requires trained personnel, not necessary, difficult to find vein in advanced cases  Antibiotics (Ex: tetracycline)  Not necessary but can lessen severity and duration of symptoms o Prevention:  Vaccines: some exist (relatively new) not su
More Less

Related notes for ANTC68H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.