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ANTC68 -Deconstructing Epidemics Lecture 1: Introduction  Endemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease is present in a population at a relatively constant (usually low) level at all times (no change in incidence over time)  Epidemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease rate (# of new cases or incidence) suddenly increases above the expected or normal level for a short time in a localized area  Pandemic: when number of disease cases occurring worldwide suddenly increases Sattenspiel and Slonim 2012 Worldwide mortality due to infectious diseases (WHO 2004)  1/3 population die from infectious diseases Perspectives  Bio-cultural  Ecological: environment is a separate factor  Evolutionary: historical contingency o accounts for time o recognize nature of epidemics at a certain period of time (time depth) Anthropogenesis of Disease Emergence and Re-emergence  Human made factors of disease Relative Visibility  Why do we consider some disease infectious than others?  Due to the visibility of the disease  Example would be HIV/AIDS  It's in people's conscious and its therefore publicized  If the disease is not relative visibility when the disease is not publicized or controlled as much Social Construction of Epidemics  Epidemics are socially constructed Drugs used  Aids medication (anti-retrovirals)  Ritalin for ADHD children Cultural Consequences  Perspective above statistics  Anthropology gives a more qualitative approach Epidemiology  The study of (human) disease, illness, and injury  Causes, manifestations, distribution and consequences ... and the application of this study to the control of health problems (public health)  Interactions of host, agent, and environment o Looks at behaviour of humans, and animals o Recognizes the environmental factors  THUS: it examines the biology and behaviour of humans (animals) (host) and disease-causing pathogens (agents), as well as non-living and living environmental factors (natural and cultural) influencing the development and manifestations of disease  And applies this knowledge to deal with/the control of health problems  Descriptive, theoretical (models), analytical (quantitative) and applied (public health control/prevention) Paleoeopidemiology  Use of epidemiological methods to infer how certain disease might have been distributed in ancient times  How, why and where they originated  Try to predict possible futures of communicable and other diseases and possible trends in the emergence of new diseases and re-emergence of old ones  Importance of studying prevalence over incidence o Prevalence (total number of cases, present and past over time) over incidence (new cases)  Sources of evidence: human hard/soft tissues, archaeological evidence (demography), cemetery and (ethno)historical records, even ethnographic analogy  Images shows a skull in which the person had leprosy Hippocrates (c. 456-377 B.C.E.)  All matter made up of 4 elements: earth, air, fire, water  Each possess corresponding qualities of cold, dry, hot, moist  These elements carried in the body by 4 humors (bodily fluids): phlegm, yellow bile (choler, secreted by liver), blood and black bile (gall, secreted by kidneys and spleen)  Disease is a product of a disturbance in the bodily humors, or from climate and weather effects (thus good health = balance of humors) Today --> "Hot" Foods "Cold" Foods  Concept of health and ill health -fatty flesh such as mutton, -apples, bananas  Hot and cold food balances  System similar to hippocrates belief meats -citrus fruit -oily nuts like peanuts -leafy vegetables Chinese -spices like chile peppers -broccoli From Description to Analysis and ginger -soy milk  'Miasma' and Cholera o London, England -root vegetables -wheat, seaweed -ripe mangos -yogurt o 4 major cholera outbreaks in -coffee, tea mid 19th century -ice cream o Cholera: acute intestinal -eggs infection caused by -tomato, mango, -milk -bland vegetables bacterium Vibrio cholerae Indian- mushrooms -powdered milk -green, leafy vegetables o 600+ deaths in 1854 Ayurvedic -tuna fish, squid, shellfish -freshwater fish o John Snow -pork, beef, and duck meat -chicken and mutton Epidemiological Questions: -bananas and citrus fruits -most chile peppers -most fresh vegetables  Public health interested when -most temperate zone fruits -most tropical fruits addressing diseases: Latin -cereal grai
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