Class Notes (835,338)
Canada (509,112)
Anthropology (1,586)
ANTC68H3 (58)
R Song (25)
Lecture

ANTC68_Lecture_1.docx

5 Pages
132 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC68H3
Professor
R Song
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC68 -Deconstructing Epidemics Lecture 1: Introduction  Endemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease is present in a population at a relatively constant (usually low) level at all times (no change in incidence over time)  Epidemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease rate (# of new cases or incidence) suddenly increases above the expected or normal level for a short time in a localized area  Pandemic: when number of disease cases occurring worldwide suddenly increases Sattenspiel and Slonim 2012 Worldwide mortality due to infectious diseases (WHO 2004)  1/3 population die from infectious diseases Perspectives  Bio-cultural  Ecological: environment is a separate factor  Evolutionary: historical contingency o accounts for time o recognize nature of epidemics at a certain period of time (time depth) Anthropogenesis of Disease Emergence and Re-emergence  Human made factors of disease Relative Visibility  Why do we consider some disease infectious than others?  Due to the visibility of the disease  Example would be HIV/AIDS  It's in people's conscious and its therefore publicized  If the disease is not relative visibility when the disease is not publicized or controlled as much Social Construction of Epidemics  Epidemics are socially constructed Drugs used  Aids medication (anti-retrovirals)  Ritalin for ADHD children Cultural Consequences  Perspective above statistics  Anthropology gives a more qualitative approach Epidemiology  The study of (human) disease, illness, and injury  Causes, manifestations, distribution and consequences ... and the application of this study to the control of health problems (public health)  Interactions of host, agent, and environment o Looks at behaviour of humans, and animals o Recognizes the environmental factors  THUS: it examines the biology and behaviour of humans (animals) (host) and disease-causing pathogens (agents), as well as non-living and living environmental factors (natural and cultural) influencing the development and manifestations of disease  And applies this knowledge to deal with/the control of health problems  Descriptive, theoretical (models), analytical (quantitative) and applied (public health control/prevention) Paleoeopidemiology  Use of epidemiological methods to infer how certain disease might have been distributed in ancient times  How, why and where they originated  Try to predict possible futures of communicable and other diseases and possible trends in the emergence of new diseases and re-emergence of old ones  Importance of studying prevalence over incidence o Prevalence (total number of cases, present and past over time) over incidence (new cases)  Sources of evidence: human hard/soft tissues, archaeological evidence (demography), cemetery and (ethno)historical records, even ethnographic analogy  Images shows a skull in which the person had leprosy Hippocrates (c. 456-377 B.C.E.)  All matter made up of 4 elements: earth, air, fire, water  Each possess corresponding qualities of cold, dry, hot, moist  These elements carried in the body by 4 humors (bodily fluids): phlegm, yellow bile (choler, secreted by liver), blood and black bile (gall, secreted by kidneys and spleen)  Disease is a product of a disturbance in the bodily humors, or from climate and weather effects (thus good health = balance of humors) Today --> "Hot" Foods "Cold" Foods  Concept of health and ill health -fatty flesh such as mutton, -apples, bananas  Hot and cold food balances  System similar to hippocrates belief meats -citrus fruit -oily nuts like peanuts -leafy vegetables Chinese -spices like chile peppers -broccoli From Description to Analysis and ginger -soy milk  'Miasma' and Cholera o London, England -root vegetables -wheat, seaweed -ripe mangos -yogurt o 4 major cholera outbreaks in -coffee, tea mid 19th century -ice cream o Cholera: acute intestinal -eggs infection caused by -tomato, mango, -milk -bland vegetables bacterium Vibrio cholerae Indian- mushrooms -powdered milk -green, leafy vegetables o 600+ deaths in 1854 Ayurvedic -tuna fish, squid, shellfish -freshwater fish o John Snow -pork, beef, and duck meat -chicken and mutton Epidemiological Questions: -bananas and citrus fruits -most chile peppers -most fresh vegetables  Public health interested when -most temperate zone fruits -most tropical fruits addressing diseases: Latin -cereal grai
More Less

Related notes for ANTC68H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit