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ANTC68H3 (58)
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University of Toronto Scarborough
R Song

ANTC68 Deconstructing EpidemicsLecture 3 Tropical Infectious Diseases MalariaConsidered a reemergent disease Can be epidemic because it causes morbidity and mortality Humid Tropics Area around the equator Very diverse in terms of plants One of most extensivediverse biomes yet one of the most threatened due to deforestationHigh average temp High rainfall High humidity High species diversity over 50 of world Infectious Disease Microorganism Diversity Numerous microhabitats promote speciation Tropical pathogens and vectors generally have very short generation times thus there is great potential for evolution of new pathogens and vectorso Pathogens are diverse Even if not originally adapted to human populations their short generation times ensure continued opportunities for the evolution of new forms that may be able to cross species boundaries and lead to human infections Vectors able to reproduce effectively yearround in tropicso Temperate areas causes vectors to die off or lay dormant The Wet Season More outbreaks of disease Disease vectors more abundant Humans more exposed to intestinal parasites transmitted by contaminated water or soil Humans spend more time inside facilitating transmission of respiratory infections Seasonal variations in nutrition and susceptibility Human Population in the Tropics Approx 60 countries with over 2 billion people situated entirely or partly in humid tropics high populationTropical populations growing rapidly increases of 1138 per year Many tropical countries are poor infrastructure housing transportation From Table 2 Household structure facilities and location High population density Agricultural practicesoutdoor activities Deforestation and encroachment Water control projects and sanitation Inadequate health caredrug resistance Low status of women greater female impoverishment sex trade Social upheaval war conflict Ruralurban migration
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