Class Notes (811,155)
Canada (494,530)
Anthropology (1,561)
ANTC68H3 (58)
R Song (25)


8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
R Song

ANTC68: Deconstructing Epidemics Lecture 5: Influenza Influenza  Infectious disease of birds and mammals  RNA virus: family Orthomyxoviridae, 5 general: o Influenzavirus A o Influenzavirus B o Influenzavirus C o Isavirus o Thogotovirus  Chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, weakness; NB: contagious before symptoms  Death often due to associated bacterial infections (pneumonia), hemorrhage and edema of lungs  Airborne or via animal droppings Worldwide Mortality due to Infectious Diseases (Lancet 2010, Lozano et al. 2012) 1. Lower respiratory infections (mostly bacterial pneumonia, flu) : 2.8 million 2. Neonatal disorders : 2.2 million 3. HIV/AIDS : 1.5 million 4. Diarrheal (GI) infections: 1.4 million 5. Tuberculosis : 1.2 million 6. Malaria : 1.17 million Well Known Historical Pandemics  First pandemic 1510; traveled from Africa and spread across Europe 1556-60  "Asiatic Flu", 1889–1890: first reported in May of 1889 in Uzbekistan, spread quickly westward; North America by 1889, S. America, India, Australia by 1890; caused by the H2N8 type of flu virus, very high mortality rate  "Spanish flu", 1918–1919. First identified early in March 1918 in US troops in Kansas. By October 1918, it had spread to become a world-wide pandemic on all continents, eventually infecting 2.5 to 5% of the human population and 20% or more of the world population suffering from the disease to some extent. Especially deadly and virulent, it ended quickly within 18 months. In six months, 25 million were dead; estimates up to 100 million dead by the end.  "Asian Flu", 1957–58. An H2N2 virus first identified in China, late Feb. 1957, then spread to N. America by June 1957; caused more than 1 million deaths  "Hong Kong Flu", 1968–69. An H3N2 virus first detected in Hong Kong, then spread to North America, causing more than 500,000 deaths globally - influenza A (H3N2) viruses still circulate today… The “Spanish Flu” (1918-19)  Influenza A, H1N1 virus subtype (avian origin)  2-20% mortality rate (most flu: around 0.1%); afflicted almost 1/3 of world  Estimated global mortality of 50 to 100 million – but note: distribution of mortality (India, Asia, “Third World”)  Canada: 1 in 6 afflicted, killing 50,000 from 1918-19  Most deaths: bacterial pneumonia, or hemorrhage and edema of lungs  Most victims were young/middle adults, not the usual older adults and infants (more than half aged 20-40 yrs) Graph  Solid line is that of the US shows a W pattern  Pattern of mortality is a U-shape  Higher # of death between 18-35 (shows the W shape)  They are dying of secondary illnesses Societal Responses to 1918 Pandemic Historical “Siting”  Europe, North America: WW1: soldiers, poor nutrition, troop movement, ineffective medical interventions, lack of medical professionals and support stuff (and even resources) – which were diverted to the war effort, etc…. (war and disease)  Asia and Africa: resource-poor colonial governments, poverty, poor infrastructure and sanitation; clear SES-link (esp. India)  Increased urbanization, with crowded inner cities developing (more people; esp. young adults move) o Sea travel, railroads, increased global trade of goods  “A network of economic and political relationships, with Europe at its center, had connected all the continents; World War I was simply another stage in an accelerating time of materials and people moving to and from Europe and elsewhere” (Hays 2005: 389) America’s Forgotten Pandemic (Crosby 1976) Cause and Source of 1918 Pandemic?  2005: CDC reconstructed virus from mummified remains of American victims buried in permafrost  Virus lead to H5N1 (mutation of swine flu) Quiz 1: Societal/government responses to the 1918 flu pandemic did not generally include: a) Cancellation of public events b) Quarantining of sick individuals c) Mass burials of mostly elderly adults d) Occasional closures of schools and theatres Indonesia, Avian Flu and Flu Control  225 (237) million ppl living in archipelago of 13,000 + islands  Largest pop. of 125 million live on Java, which is only 7% of the country’s landmass and 1/3 size of Germany (940 ppl/km2)  Causes: Geographic, logistical, socioeconomic and political challenges o Geographical: 13 00 islands, majority of people living on small land mass (high pop density) o 237 million people live on this island  H5N1 has killed over 50 percent of confirmed cases of infection  Virulence of H5N1 compared to 1918 flu pandemic? Industrial Farming  Chicken are bred to die  This type of farming to keep up with the demand  We eat the most amount of meat  Repercussion is the illness  Corporation owned Human-Animal Interactions  Particularly domesticated ones is quite common in part of the world  Increases the spread of illness (H1N1; swine flu  Animals can spread disease to us or vice versa --> constant contact with each other Food, Culture, Blame and the “Other”  Behavioural and cultural practices associated with illnesses  Drink bird blood for example about part of cultural practice  Can cause an illness  Blames cutlural behaviour led them to acquire this disease (not the actual cause, but society puts the blame a certain groups of people for why that epidemic started in the world Global Distribution of Cases H5N1 Bird Flu Cases Indonesia September 2005 Indonesia and Avian Flu  60% of households (30 million homes) have domesticated chickens and/or ducks/quail in backyards – extra income (flexible capital) plus food source (“free-range” chickens)  Chickens often handled as pets, living in households (kitchen)  Effectiveness of culling and vaccination?  GOVT: decentralized rule after many years of strong central governance; democratization of local level politics gives lot of power to local authorities (key to coordination of flu control)  Wet markets for free-range poultry; hygiene issues  Egg production industry less monitored than broiler industry  Note: manure collection and hygiene, bird illnesses, consumption  manure collection of chicken droppings  bird illnesses tend to spread when one chicken is sick and it spreads the virus Commercial Poultry Farming  Multi-nodal commodity chain: Figure 1 – commodity chain analysis to ID stakeholders and their different (economic) motivations and responses to gov’t directives  Importance of poultry distributor  Risky: 5-10% birds lost to illness, esp. during climate transitions (Oct/Nov – dry to rainy; May/June – rainy to dry), which coincided with peak months of avian flu Local Understanding (laypeople and poultry workers)  Birds’ susceptibility to sickness: perceptions differ b/w backyard (free-range) and commercial (broiler) farmers; though agreed: wild birds not the source of flu  Human susceptibility: thought butchers in wet market and poultry farm workers would be most at risk (“weather vanes”); fact that none got it led to belief that the risk of disease to humans was exaggerated (disease of birds only); doubted the disease existed in humans  Area of agreement: perception that pig farmers - non-Muslims - are most likely the source of new disease Response to Reports of Flu (2006)  Lots of media coverage (local/national), but little behavioural change for those raising chickens at home  Perception by commercial poultry farmers? o overhyped event possible was a conspiracy theory o conspiracy theory: trying to destabilize poultry industry saying Indonesian chicken was not great  Consumer changes, re: purchasing & cooking habits  Cultural context (other risks): concerns over earthquakes, tsunami, dengue fever; economic challenges: price of gas, rice (increased cost of living) Publi
More Less

Related notes for ANTC68H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.