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University of Toronto Scarborough
R Song

ANCT68 Deconstructing EpidemicsLecture 9 Emerging Diseases Ebola vCJDEbola A filovirus transmitted by direct contact with the blood body fluids and tissues of infected persons Also by handling sick or dead infected wild animals chimps gorillas monkeys forest antelope bats Incubation from 2 to 21 days The predominant treatment is general supportive therapy Commonly a nosocomial infectionOnset is abrupt and characterized by fever headache joint and muscle aches sore throat and weakness followed by diarrhea vomiting and stomach pain A rash red eyes hiccups and internal and external bleeding ebola hemorrhagic fever may be seen in some Mortality ranges from 5090 of clinically diagnosed cases case fatality rate About 1850 cases with over 1200 deaths have been documented since the virus was discovered Origins Natural reservoirRate of transmission is low High mortality but only few 1000s have died Nosocomial pick up from another person in a health care facility that had the disease Hemorrhagic fever more likely to die from the disease Mortality from 5090 depends on species of Ebola Limited parts of Africa through bodily fluids of another infected person such as a family memberOccurs most often in hospital setting where someone else had the Ebola virus Origin zoonotic disease Natural host fruit bats when they have the virus they do not exhibit any symptoms of Ebola Virus can be passed through saliva bite a fruit and leave it which can spread to other animalsCommonly acquire from bats through fruits thats how other animals receive the disease Accidental host spread of the disease from one animal to the other CDC 2010 2004 Sudan EbolaSudan Subtype 17 human cases 7 deaths 41 This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area and several suspected cases were later reclassified as measles 2007 Democratic Republic of Congo EbolaZaire subtype 264 cases 187 deaths 71 Dec 2007Jan 2008 Uganda EbolaBundibugyo subtype 149 cases 37 deaths 25 First reported occurance of a new strain Nov 2008 Philippines EbolaReston 6 cases asymptomatic 0 deaths 0 First known occurrence of EbolaReston in pigs Strain closely similar to earlier strains Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick Dec 2008Feb 2009 Democratic Republic of the Congo EbolaZaire subtype 32 cases 15 deaths 47 May 2011 Uganda EbolaSudan subtype 1 case fatal 100
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