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Lecture 4

ANTC68 Lecture 4 .rtf

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ANTC68LECTURE4-DECONSTRUCTINGCHOLERA January 29, 2012 ✓ Surat, India after plague outbreak in September 1994 ⁃ people were in panic mode bc of plague they all wanted to leave ⁃ not regular people who left, it was front line of medical professionals ⁃ don't expect doctors and nurses to panic ⁃ issue of front line medical professionals leaving ✓ extent of cultural and social reactions of new diseases depends on: ⁃ four factors that determine the social response of the pathogens of disease ✓ perception can be a significant factor: ✓ factors in the poor success of public health interventions in an epidemic: ⁃ overcoming ignorance of cultural beliefs ✓ public health interventions, especially health education, need to consider: ⁃ don't understand the social context and the community that is being dealt with so public health interventions can go totally wrong and have an negative affect on the community ✓ interdisciplinary and methodological "triangulation" between epidemiologists, virologists, and social scientist ✓ epidemics should be considered social processes that are social=-culturally and epidemiolgoically constructed ✓ Miasma and cholera ⁃ chlorea made a significant role in epidieolgoy ⁃ john snow played a role trying to figure out the cause of cholera besides the social stigma ⁃ miasma - bad air / environmental factors / cold wet air vs dry air ⁃ theory of causation : shoe leather epidemiolgoy - tried to identify the source and walked in neighbourhood and visited the house and wanted to see the geographic distribution of the disease. and he linked it to water pumps and hypothesized the source of the disease ✓ medical geography: ⁃ geographic distribution of disease . spatial distribution of disease and can identify the causation that plays a role ⁃ patterns of health , based on house in neighbourhood with water pump or estimation of patterning of diseases ✓ cholera ⁃ fecal contamination of water ⁃ dehydration = causes extreme and fast deterioration that causes death ✓ water insecurity and cholera ⁃ open sewer contamination during rainy and flood seasons bc water will run through houses and come in direct contact with human activity ⁃ lack of portable water ⁃ sewage contaminated ✓ origin? ⁃ started early 1817 and still persistent now ✓ map; ⁃ shows recent outbreaks in 2010 to 2011 ⁃ areas imported cases = brought in from travelling out of seas ⁃ new world : haiti is a concern of cholera ✓ ORT AND RIT ⁃ depends on good source of water ⁃ maintains electrolyte balance in the body , mix solution in water and drink it - but clean water is permitted and required for this ✓ Cholera in Peru ⁃ coastal part of south america ⁃ worked it way through south america and lead to 400000 cases of peru and died ⁃ at the time was different explanation ✓ possible ecological causes of 1991-1992 epidemic: ⁃ dumped bilge water : large tankers of contamination into coast of water , coming from south asia with contaminated water and effected people ⁃ sea current el nino : temperature of water, el nino year means ocean temperature is warmer then normal and
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