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Lecture 6

ANTC99 - plesiadapiformes (lecture 6).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

Euprimates – Lecture 6 Primates = Euprimates + Plesiadapiformes Euprimates: modern primates, and fossil primates that have the characteristic features of modern primates = primates Plesiadapiforms: extinct stem primates, which lack some features characteristic of modern primates “Proto-euprimat”e 2 “Proto-euprimat”e 1 Euprimates Earliest primates evolved during either the Cretaceous period or Paleocene *Four Euprimate characteristics N 1. Improvements to the visual system (postorbital bar, conversion of orbits) 2. Grasping extremities (nails instead of claws, long digits) N-1 3. Leaping characteristics (long hindlimbs) 4. Low-crowned molar teeth with bunodont cusps and broad talonid basins (fruit eating) N-2 Characters at N=improvements to the Dermoptera and Scandentia are grouped into the same group with euprimates – Eurchonta visual system, grasping Dermoptera and Scandentia are thought to be the closest relatives to primates extremities, leaping characteristics of the skeleton, low-crowned molar teeth with (with apologies to Dan Gebo) bunodont cusps and broad talonid basins Dermopteramoptera Scandentiaia Euarchonta Dermoptera Euarchonta Dermoptera (flying lemur) Euprimates Scandentia (treeshrews) - Asia Not lemurs and cannot fly Ptilocercus (pen-tailed treeshrew) Gliding arborealists Arboreal & nocturnal (45g) They resemble lemurs by having toothcombs Diet: frugivorous & insectivorous However the toothcomb differ greatly between the two Tupaia tana Lemur’s toothcomb - incisors and canines Terrestrial & diurnal (205g) Dermoptera tooth comb’s incisors have many comb like Euarchonta Diet: frugivorous & insectivorous structures At first they were grouped as primates but the similar Phalangeal properties is related to having webbing features were then proven to be due to convergence between the fingers for gliding (palagium – gliding Canines don’t participate in the tooth comb membrane) They also have postorbital bars* - convergent trait? Example: Galeopterus variegatus Ptilocercus is the best living common ancestor of primates *specialized hands Euprimates Scandentia Has grasping hands but no opposable thumb and has claws Euarchonta Plesiadapiforms (north America and Europe) – 12 families Plesiadapiforms flourished during the Paleocene and the early Eocene Dental formula is usually Diet: mostly insectivores and can be omnivores Locomotion: most likely arboreal A bone of a plesiadapiform (paromomyid) closely resembled the finger bone of dermopteran. This may indicate gliding behavior which would mean that plesiadapiforms are not related to primates. However further analysis indicated that the bone might be a foot bone and the Plesiadapiforms (stem primates) Part 2 joints don’t match eitherPlesiadapidaeted bone is needed to clarify this issue. Carpolestidaedae Superfamily: Plesiadapoidea Late paleocene Picrodontids Superfamily: Paromomyidae Middle – late paleocene North America North America Carpolestes has a divergent toe with a nail` Unusual check teeth Plesiadapiforms (stem pPlesiadapiforms (stem primates) Part 2 Plesiadapidae Picromomyidae Diet: fruit and nectar Purgatoriidae
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