Lecture 1- 6 Notes.docx

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Arts Culture and Media
Michael Petit

Notes Lecture 1 • Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health, disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by factors in the environment • Environment is everything that affects a living organism • Geosphere: 1/3 to ½ of the land surface has been transformed by human action • No single factor is responsible for the declining health of organisms: increase UV, traces of toxic chemicals, infections, predators • Environmental factors responsible for 25% of all preventable diseases • In developing countries diarrhea and respiratory infections are heading the list • Protecting the environment has been a mainstay of public health practices since 1878 • Chemical hazards: in air water soil and food • Biological hazard : bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals such as bees and poisonous snacks • Social hazards, unsafe working condition, poor diet, drunks m,, drinking, driving, poverty • Physical hazards : radiation, fire, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake Lecture 2 • Effects of outdoor air pollution o Asthma o Chronic Bronchitis- excessive amounts of mucus is produced in bronchi o Pulmonary emphysema – weakening of the wall of alveoli o Lung cancer o Heart disease o Toxic poisoning o Eye irritation o Birth defects • Common outdoor air pollutants o Primary  Particulate matter  Carbon monoxide  Nitrogen oxides  Sulphur oxides  VOC (volatile organic compounds)  Lead o Secondary air pollutant  Ground level ozone • Particulate matter o Particles found in the air (dust, smoke, etc) o Big and small o Some are formed in the air o Has serious health effects • Carbon Monoxide o Odorless, colorless gas o Incomplete burning of carbon containing fuels o Bigger problem for indoor air pollution o Comes from heaters, woodstoves, gias stoves, fireplaces, exhaust o 1000 people die each year in U.S o Easily confused with flu or food poisoning o Fetuses,infants, elderly, and people with heart and respiratory illnesses are at highrisk for adverse health effects o Health effects  Interferes with delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body  Worsen cardiovascular conditions  Fatigue  Headache  Weakness  Confusion  Disorientation  Nausea,dizziness,death o prevention  No car left running in shed or enclosed space  Propery selection and maintenance of appliances  Good ventilation o Nitrogen Oxides  Form in any type of combustion process  Involve in formation of ground level ozone  Form nitrate particle  Contribute in formation of acid rain  Transported over long distances o Sulphur Oxide  Burning of coal and oil, extraction of metals from ore  Sulphur dioxide dissolve in water vapour to form acid  Acids react with other gases and particles and form sulphates  Also transported over ling distances  Causes respiratoy illnesses, aggravates existing heart and lung diseases o VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)  Variety of organic compounds used as solvent in industry, automobiles  Hydrocarbons: methane, butane, propane  Some produce photo chemical smog o Lead  Metal  Vehicles and industrial sources leaded gasoline  Particularly effect young children  Deposit on soil and water o Ozone (O3)  VOC + NO(x) + Heat + sunlight = Ozone  Summertime pollutant, time of the day, seasonal, climate  Good in stratosphere  Bad on a ground  Causes lung damage  Shortness of breath, chest tightness, coughing and nausea  Irritate and damage eyes, nose, sinuses and throat  People who exercise a lot outdoors o Smog 0 smoke + fog  Photochecmical smog – L.A type of smog or brown air  Sulphurous smog – London type of smog or industrial smog o Indoor air pollution  Contains 2-5 times higher concentration of hazardous pollutants than outdoor air  Buildings more airtight to conserve energy , inadequate ventilation  People spend 90% of time indoors o Sources  Building materials  Asbestos insulation  Wet or damp carpet  Furniture made of certain pressed wood products  Cleaning products and air freshners  Personal car and hobbies  Pesticide  Cooking  Bathing  Heating (combustion)  Radon  Smoking  Outdoor pollution o Health effects  Hard to detect by senses  Needs years to develop  Headaches, tiredness, dizziness, nausea, itchy nose, scratchy throat  Cancer, asthma o Six common indoor air pollutants  Asbestos  Formaldehyde  Mold and moisture  Second hand smoke  Radon gas  Air dust o Asbestos  Group of six differen fibrous minerals  Long, strong, flexible  Used in building materials  Friction products ( brakes, transmission)  Heat resistant fabrics, packaging and coatings  It does not evaporate into air or dissolve in water  Fibres and particles may remain suspended in the air and carried long distances  Not able ot move through soil  Exposed through working in industries, or living near industries.  From drinking water  Health effects • Affect the lungs and the membrane that surrounds the lungs • Asbestosis – scar – like tissue not in general public • Plaque in the pleural membrane o Cancer – stomach, lung, esophagus, pancreas, kidnew o Formaldehyde  Volatile organice compounds, naturally occurring gases, colourless, strong smell  Become a gas at room temperature  Released by burning wood or natural gas  Can come from glue, adhesives in presswood, preservatives in some paint and cosmetics, coatings that provide permanent press quality to fabric and draperies  Health effects • Allergic reactions • Nausea • Coughing • Chest tightness
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