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VPHA46H3 (32)
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Rui Hu

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Art History

31 Pantheon Artist and Culture Date 118-128 CE Hadrian, Rome FC Entrance porch is made to resemble the faade of a typical rectangular roman temple. The circular shape of the building is concealed. Rotunda (circular room) is topped with a huge bowl shaped dome. Often surprise the viewers. Oculus, an opening in the center of the dome, creates a sense of open space. Gives people the impression that they can rise and commune with the cosmos CC Temple to the Olympian gods Some see the Pantheon as the climax of the spatial experimentation and audacity that are hallmarks of roman imperial architecture. Coffers (recessed ceiling panels) help lighten the weight of the masonry and may once have contained gilded bronze rosettes or stars suggesting the heavens 32 Constantine the Artist and Culture Date Great, Basilica of Maxentius ordered the repair of many Maxentius and buildings in Rome and had others built 325-326 CE Constantine, Rome during his short reign. From the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine FC Emperors marble head came from an awe-inspiring statue of the seated emperor. Reminder of his imperial power when he himself was unable to be present CC Last important imperial government building erected in Rome itself. Functioned as an administrative center and provided a magnificent setting for the emperor when he appeared as supreme judge. # Title of the Artwork Artist and/or Culture (1pt) Date (1pt) (1pt) 33 Villa of the Pompeii 60-50 BCE Mysteries Formal characteristics (medium, technique, style, etc. (2pt): Wall painting Marble dado, elegant frieze Shallow, runs around the entire room Red colour in background was very popular with Pompeian painters, come to be called Pompeian red. Cultural Context (2pt) Rites of mystery religions were often performed in private homes as well as in special buildings or temples and this room at the corner of a suburban villa may have been a shrine or meeting place for such a cult. Depicts initiation rites into the cult of Bacchus (god of vegetation and fertility and wine) (popular deity in Pompeii. 34 Patrician Carrying Artist and Culture Date two portrait busts of end st beginning his ancestors Rome of 1 century FC Life size marble statue of a roman patrician Large marble format emulates a Greek notion of sculpture Stylistic differences in the bust reveal that these men lived in successive generations. Wearing a toga, head is not original CC Holding the bust of his ancestors document his distinguished lineage in the privileged upper class Dating back to emperor Augustus Status symbol 35 Menorahs and Ark Artist and Culture Date of the Covenant, rd Jewish catacomb Rome 3 Century FC Wall painting in a Jewish catacomb Two menorahs, or seven branched lamps sit side by side with the long lost ark of the covenant inbetween Religious/symbolic of Judaism CC 6 Jewish catacombs (underground cemeteries), discovered just outside the city of Rome, in use between 1-4 century consisted of wall paintings with Jewish themes. Judaism holy book of the torah, prophet moses led Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt to the land of Canaan. Moses received the 10 commandments from god which was kept in the Ark of the covenant King Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem to host the Ark of the Covenant. Constant rebuilding and destroying of temples. Jews continued to live in dispersed communities throughout the Roman Empire. 36 Good shepherd from Artist and Culture Date Galla Placidia Christianity, Ravenna c. 425-426 FC Mosaic Jesus sitting in a luxuriant landscape, holding gold cross Architectural decoration, signaling triumph of the new faith CC Originated in agrarian societies, the theme of the shepherd watching over a flock of sheep or carrying home a week or lost lamb became a powerful and positive image. Christian symbol, Jesus called himself the good shepherd who lays down his life for his sheep. Not exclusively Christian but Christians took that meaning of it. Showcasing a young emperor wearing purple and gold robes # Title of the Artwork Artist and/or Culture (1pt) Date (1pt) (1pt) 37 Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey 532-537 (inside) Designed by two scholar theoreticians, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of miletus Formal characteristics (medium, technique, style, etc. (2pt): Mosque Light would escape into the Hagia Sophia Weightless, floating effect of the dome. Covered in gold mosaic, the windows appear to make the dome hover. Cultural Context (2pt) Embodies imperial power and Christian glory Rumoured that the dome was constructed by angels Transformed Hagia Sophia into a mosque by the ottoman turks who made additions to the church
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