Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Astronomy (100)
ASTA01H3 (100)
Lecture 20

ASTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: European Southern Observatory, Shield Volcano, Martian Soil


Department
Astronomy
Course Code
ASTA01H3
Professor
Kristen Menou
Lecture
20

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Letue  ASTA Chapte 
Copaatie Plaetolog of the Teestial Plaets
Letue  – Teestial plaets: Veus, Mas
The Surfae of Veus
Soiet 蘇聯 ad Aeia oot poes 探測 laded suessfull o the sufae of
Veus i the s ad s ad aaged to suie the heat ad pessue fo a
fe hous.
Veussufae is e hot, T=  oC
Eletois fails at suh tepeatues
Soe of the spaeaft aalzed the ok ad sapped a fe photogaphs. The st
as the Soiet Veea spaeaft.
The sufae oks o Veus ae dak ga asalts 玄武岩, uh like those i Eaths
oea floos.
This eidee ofis that olais is ipotat.
Volaoes o Veus taspot uh heat to the sufae
No plate tetois 構造 like Eath.
The Histor of Veus
We ish to eplai to thigs:
The thik ao dioide atosphee, ad
The peulia 奇特 geolog.
Calulatios sho that Veus ad Eath hae outgassed 排氣 aout the sae
aout of ao dioide.
Eaths oeas, though, hae dissoled 溶解 it ad oeted 轉換 it to sediets
沉積物 suh as liestoe 石灰岩.
If all the ao i Eaths sediets ad ust ee dug up ad oeted ak to
ao dioide, ou atosphee ould e aout as dese as the ai o Veus:
 ties dese!
 ties highe pessue sie thee is ~ g sufae gait aeleatio o Veus.
This suggests that the ai diffeee etee Eath ad Veus is the lak of ate
o Veus.
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Veus a hae had sall oeas he it as oug ad uh oe Eathlike
oditios tha at peset.
Hoee, eig lose to the Su, it as ae, ad the CO ad HO i the
atosphee eated a geehouse effet that ade the plaet ee ae.
The opositio of Veuss atosphee idiates that a oeas oth of ate has
ee apouized 蒸發 ad lost illios of eas ago
Plaeta sietists olude that Veus as tapped i a uaa geehouse
effet.
The tepeatue is aised  ~ degees C  the geehouse effet, this is a
eod.
Fo opaiso, its ~oC o Eath ad ol a fe degees o Mas.
Thee is o sig of plate tetois, poal eause thee is o liuid ate
Hoee, thee is eidee that oetio 對流 uets elo the ust ae
defoig 變形 the ust to:
Make ooae ,
Push up outais suh as Maell, ad
Ceate soe folded outais – like those aoud Ishta Tea –  io hoizotal
ust otios.
The sall ue of ates o the sufae hits that the etie ust has ee
eplaed ithi the last half-illio eas o so.
This a hae oued i a plaetide 遍佈全球 oetuig 翻轉 – as the old
ust oke up ad sak ad laa flos eated a e ust.
Copaig Eath to Veus a eetuall eeal oe aout ho ou o olds
olais ad tetois ok.
Mars
If ou ee isit aothe old, Mas a e ou est hoie.
You ill eed a heated, pessuized spaesuit, ut Mas is ot as ihospitale 不適宜
as the Moo.
It is also oe iteestig – ith eathe, ople geolog, ates, olaoes, ad
sigs that ate oe floed oe its sufae.
Mas as suspeted to hae Matia Caals uilt  a iilizatio to taspot ate
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 Shiapaelli i , ad  Peial Loell late
The tued out to e a illusio 錯覺
Mas is aout % fathe fo the Su tha Eath ut its otatioal peiod is e
siila to that of Eath, ith a sola da sol of . hous.
As ell, its otatioal ais is tilted at .°to its oit; this is siila to Eaths at
.°, so there are distit seasos o Mars.
The Atosphere of Mars
The Martia air otais 9% aro dioide, % itroge, ad % argo.
That is siilar to the opositio of air o Veus.
Hoee, the Matia atosphee is e thi.
 It is less tha  peet as dese as Eaths atosphee.
 It is /  as dese as Veuss.
Tpial tepeatue o Mas is etee -oC ad oC, o aeage -oC
Thee is e little ater i the Matia atosphee.
Liuid ate aot suie o the sufae of Mas eause the ai pessue is too
lo.
A liuid ate ould iediatel oil aa.
Polar aps of Mars
The pola aps appea to e oposed of foze ate ie oated oe ao
dioide d ie.
Whatee ate is peset o Mas is foze eithe ithi the pola aps o as
peafost 永凍層 i the soil.
The Atosphere of Mars
Although the peset atosphee of Mas is e thi, ou ill see eidee that the
liate oe peitted liuid ate to flo oe the sufae.
So, it ust hae had a thike atosphee.
Beig a teestial plaet, it should hae outgassed sigifiat aouts of ao
dioide, itoge, ad ate apou.
As it as sall, hoee, it ould ot hold oto its atosphee.
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