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Lecture 11

ASTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Comet Nucleus, Hubble Space Telescope, Solar Wind


Department
Astronomy
Course Code
ASTA01H3
Professor
Kristen Menou
Lecture
11

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Chapte
The oigi of the “ola “ste
Huas hae ihaited the sola sste fo at least a illio eas. Hoee, ol
ithi the last
 eas hae e egu to ealize that e lie i a osos宇宙 ad a plaeta
行星 sste  
 eas hae e egu to udestad the details of the tue helioeti 日心說
ahitetueof ou sola sste
 eas hae udestood its ehais
 eas hae e stated to ake detailed sietifi odels of its oigi
 eas hae sesed that its haoti 混亂的 et stale, ad hee it is loated i
a Gala
 eas hae e opleted the Copeia eolutio: Halo “haple eoed
the “u fo the ete of the Gala, ad Edi Hule the Gala fo the ete
of the Uiese
 eas hae e figued out ho the su oks ad ho the stas podued the
atos 原子 i ou odies
 eas hae e egu to osee & udestad details of sta foatio suh as
potostella 原恆星 disks ad thei eleae 關聯 to ou oigis
 eas hae e egu to osee diet eidee fo plaeta sstes othe tha
ou o
 eas hae e plaed ou sste i a ide otet ad opaed it ith
hudeds of el disoeed etasola sstes
…ad stated fillig the gaps i ou theoies of the oigis
The Geat Chai of Oigis
The oigi of the uiese i the ig ag,
The foatio of galaies,
The oigi of stas, ad
The podutio of the heial eleets.
The Histo of the Atos i You Bod
B the tie the uiese as thee iutes old, the potos 質子, eutos 中子,
ad eletos o i ou od had oe ito eistee.
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You ae ade of e old atte. G old
Although those patiles 粒子 foed uikl, the ee ot liked togethe to fo
the atos that ae oo toda.
Most of the atte as hdoge alost % ad aout % as heliu 󲋏.
Ve fe < % of the heaie atos ee ade i the ig ag.
The ig ag also foed the so-alled dak atte, hih peeates 滲透 the
plaeta sstes at e lo desit 密󱕏, ut has e little iteatio ith the.
Although ou od does ot otai heliu, it does otai a of those aiet
hdoge atos that hae eaied uhaged sie the uiese ega.
We ae ade ostl of ate, ad ate is ade ostl of hdoge outig the
atos, ad of oge hih doiates 佔據 ou ass
Duig the fist fe huded illio eas afte the ig ag, atte olleted to
fo galaies otaiig illios of stas.
Ou Gala as uilt ~. G ago so-alled thi disk
ulea eatios iside stas oie lo-ass atos, suh as hdoge, to ake
heaie atos.
Geeatio of stas oied the oigial patiles, fusig 合成 the ito atos
suh as ao, itoge, ad oge: CNO
Those ae oo atos i ou od.
Ee the aliu atos i ou oes ee asseled 組合 iside stas.
Nulea uig ous at the oudaies etee zoes.
Eaple of the ulea eatios that uilt euto-ih isotopes 同位素
Massie sta ea the ed of its lifetie has a oio-likestutue just pio to
eplodig as a supeoa 超新星.
Most of the io i ou od as podued :
Cao fusio 碳融合 i the eplosios of stas alled supeoae, ad Dea of
adioatie atos 放射性原子衰 i the epadig atte ejeted 噴出
supeoae.
Atos heaie tha io, suh as iodie , ee eated  apid ulea eatios
that a ou ol duig supeoa eplosios.
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Eleets uoo eough to e epesie – gold, sile, ad platiu i the
jeelle that huas ea – also ee podued duig the iolet deaths of ae,
assie stas.
Ou gala otais at least  illio stas, of hih the “u is oe.
The “u foed fo a loud of gas ad dust aout . illio eas ago . G
ago.
The atos i ou od ee pat of that loud, ad peiousl pat of aothe
loud that foed a ealie sta hih o loge eists… You ae stadust,
epoessed 再加工 a ties oe the . G, eihed i 使豐富 hea
eleets iside stas ad i eplodig stas.
As the geologist Pesto Cloud eaked, “tas hae died that e ight lie.
The Oigi of the “ola “ste
 Astooes hae a theo fo the oigi of ou sola sste that is osistet oth
ith oseatios of the sola sste ad ith oseatios of sta foatio.
No, afte the disoe of etasola plaets the ae efiig 精製 the details of
the theoies of foatio that ould eplai oth ou ad othe plaeta sstes.
The sola eula 星雲 theo supposes that plaets fo i the otatig disks of gas
ad dust aoud oug stas.
Ou o plaeta sste foed i suh a disk-shaped loud aoud the “u.
Whe the “u eae luious eough, the eaiig gas ad dust ee lo
aa ito spae  the sola id a stea of haged patiles fothe “u, ad
UV 紫外線ultaiolet adiatio 輻射, leaig the plaets oitig the “u.
eal oepts
Aodig to the sola eula hpothesis 假設, Eath ad the othe plaets of the
sola sste foed . illios of eas ago as the “u odesed 冷凝 fo the
itestella 星際 ediu.
Kat-Laplae eula
Iauel Kat - - dust & stoes
Piee-“io de Laplae - - gas igs
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