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Lecture 1

ASTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Edwin Hubble, Bubble Chamber, Plate Tectonics


Department
Astronomy
Course Code
ASTA01H3
Professor
Kristen Menou
Lecture
1

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Chapter ASTA
CERN is home of the large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator in operation
today, which was designed to simulate the beginning of the universe
Bubble chamber were an important tool for the study of particle physics from the
5’s to the s
100 meters below the CERN, big detectors are looking for the first signs of the big bang,
microscopic black holes, dark matter.
The alps started forming 100 million years ago when the African tectonic plate started to
move towards the European plate, and the bottom of the sea rose to form new
mountains
The diameter of planet earth is 13000 kilometers
The rotation of earth on its axis each 24 hours carries you eastward, and as you cross
the sunset line into darkness you say that the sun has set
The moons diameter is ¼ of earths diameter
The average distance of the Moon from earth is about 380 000 kilometers
The distance between earth and the sun is about 150 million kilometers
150 million km = 1.5 * 10^8 km = 1 Astronomical Unit (AU).
The distance between Venus and Sun is 0.7 AU
The solar system consists of the Sun, its family of planets, and some smaller bodies, such
as moons, asteroids, and comets
The Sun is a star, a self-luminous ball of hot gas that generates its own energy
The Sun is about 110 time larger in diameter that Earth
Light from the Sun reaches Earth in only 8 minutes, but it takes over 4 hours to reach
Neptune
The stars are separated by average distance about 30 time larger than this view
One light year (ly) is the distance the light travels in one year
1 ly = 63 000 AU
One of the nearest star to the sun I about 4.2 ly away from earth. In other words it takes
light from the nearest star Proxima Centauri about 4.2 years to reach Earth
A galaxy is a great cloud of star, gas and dust bound together by the combined gravity of
all the matter
Our galaxy is called the milky way, and it contains over 100 billion stars and like many
other galaxies, it has graceful spiral arms winding outward through the disk
The disk of our galaxy is roughly 80 000 ly in diameter
The general classification scheme of galaxies by Edwin Hubble who in 1920s observed
the fact that galaxies tend to move away from each other
Clusters are grouped into superclusters clusters of clusters and the superclusters are
linked to form long filaments and walls outlining voids that seem nearly empty of
galaxies
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