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Lecture 17

key points (lecture 17, 18 and 19)

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Rick Halpern

Lecture 17: Saturn o Rings go through phases o Density less than water o 13 mass of Jupiter o Rotation speed squashes the Saturn so that equatorial diameter is 10% bigger o Atmosphere o Zones and band structures less colouration than Jupiter o Cloud layer thicker than Jupiter o Consists of molecular hydrogen, helium, methane and ammonia o Experiences a rain of helium from upper clouds o Similar to jupiters atmosphere but less pressure o Wind pattern same as Jupiter with zonal flow o Interior Structure o Molecular hydrogen, Metallic hydrogen and icy rocky core o Bottom of molecular hydrogen layer is hotter than Suns photosphere o Saturn radiates 3 times more energy than it gets because its cooling off o Helium and hydrogen not mixed well, helium condenses into droplets and falls back o Gravitational field compresses helium and heats it up o Magnetosphere o Saturn has a strong magnet field but only 5% of jupiters, creates aurorae o Rings o 250 000km diameter and 1 km thick o Ring system from closest to Saturn 1. C Ring 2. B Ring 3. Cassini Division 4. A Ring 5. Encke Gap o Ring crossing occur every 15 years o Ring phases occur due to the tilt of rings relative to orbital plane o Formation of rings unknown probably from catastrophic event o Particles range from few millimeters to tens of meters o Composition: water, ice o Rings cannot form into a moon because of tidal forces would tear it apart o Rings lie within the Roche limit (closest distance that moon
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