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Lecture 19

lecture 19

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Lecture 19 Asteroido1 km asteroid100 times more than all the nukes in the worldo2600 earth crossing asteroids of these 600 are potentially hazardousthey are 150m in diameter bringing them with 005 AU of the EarthoMost of these will eventually hit the Eartho3 of these hit over a million period year of these 2 are destined to hit wateroMost orbit between Mars and JupiteroEarths orbit crossing asteroids are called Apollo asteroidsoMartian orbit crossing asteroids are called Amor asteroidsoThese asteroids have elliptical orbitsoOrbital Resonances oObject 21 resonance with JupiteroKeplers laws states that there will exists a orbital resonance for two orbiting bodiesoThe result of the gravitational forces clear or collect debris at particular orbital resonance or affect the rotation rate of the orbiting objectsoGraph shows asteroids at a given semi major axisoDue to eccentric orbits asteroids will be found at all distances from Sun within the belt as cross radii corresponding to resonances oTrojan AsteroidsoOrbit at L4 and L5 lagrangian points of Jupiters orbitoAsteroids orbit at synchronous orbit with JupiteroCeres is the biggest asteroid 933km diameteroAsteroid TypesoC type carbonaceous dark most commonoS type silicate rockyoM type metallic iron and nickelCometsoPrimordial fragments of dust rocky and icy materialoSpends most of their time in outer solar system but sometimes comes inner solar systemoHistorically comets were thought to bring terrible eventsoComets have small nucleus a coma of gas and dust and a hydrogen envelope a dust tail and ion tailoComa can reach size of a planet like Uranus and NeptuneoComets ion tail always points away from the sun due to solar windoDust tail is curved because comets have a very eccentric orbitoLong period comets have periods of thousands or even millions of years
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