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Lecture 3

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Eric Shaver

Lecture 3Johannes KeplerGerman mathermaticianFavoured suncentered solar systemAnalyzed Brahes data for Mars Brahe diedRejected deferents and epicyclesCame up with the idea of elliptical orbitsCirclesfrom the center every point on the circle is at an equal distanceEllipses2 focal pointsthe further these points are the flatter the ellipseA semimajor axis plays the role of the radiusEccentricitya major of how flat the ellipse isFound that Mars and Earth orbited in this patternKeplers Laws of Planetary Motionst1 LawPlanets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focusnd2 Law 1609Describes the speed of the planetAs a planet orbits the Sun a line joining the Sun and the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal timesA planet moves faster in its orbit when it is closer to Sun speedrd3 LawThe square of a planets orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semimajor axisThe larger the orbit the longer the period time for one orbitIt means theres a predictable pattern of the planetsKepler didnt know absolute sizes of orbits but still tried to find principles to explain why the orbits were the way they wereSuggests that physical force is responsible for orbitsProduces Rudolphine Tables to predict motion of planetsTables of planet position back in the day were not workingPrediction of where planets would be at different points in time days of the yearGalileo GalileiHe did not actually invent the telescopesomebody else developed the ideaSupports Copernicus modelHe did however contruct a telescrope in 16091610Reports observations in Siderius NunciusLooked through telescope and found many more stars that we ourselves cannot see with our eyesExamined the Milky Wayfuzziness was due to many stars clustered togetherso it wasnt really too unique or anythingAlso found that fuzzy patches are made up of individual starsThe moon that was assumed to a be a perfect sphereits surface was not exactly smoothit had cratersmountainsPlanets appear as discsAlso discovered that Jupiter has satellitesThey were not stars they appeared to move with JupiterThis discovery proved that not everything moved around the earth we have
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