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Lecture 01 - new change

Biological Sciences
Course Code

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BIOA01 - Lecture 01
What is biology?
Bio – means life & logy – stud of scientific study of life
It has many implication outside of science it has application outside science
oE.g. reproduction biology - family that couldnt have child have other options to
conceive such vivo –fertilization
But have to also face & look at ethical issues surrounding these application
oE.g. Molecular biology – GM food again have look at ethical issues since
average person doesnt know the consequences that come w/ these foods
Biology is closer to understanding:
oHow a single cell develops into an organism – this has implication on developmental
stages of embryo to infant & prevent developmental disorders or problem
oHow plants convert sunlight into chemical energy - plants & photoautotropic
organism (algae & cyanobacteria) how do they split the water molecule
& emit energy as result
Thus by understanding this we could split water our self & get fossil fuel 
Great energy source
oHow human mind works Neuroscience – psychology & biology come
oHow living organism interact interesting things such as how bacteria in
your stomach that contribute to human survival & vice versa & there is also other
interaction outside the body Ecology
oHow lifes diversity evolved from early microbes - we are currently loosing many
species & even the ones we dont know about thus, we are losing
valuable info that could solve many of the problems that we currently have such as
medical, environmental etc. problems
Furthermore, these organism that are becoming extinct interact w/ the
ecological system to keep it functioning in a right order by losing
these species , the whole system could potentially break down

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What is Life?
Growth & reproduction
Convert chemical molecule to one form to another
Metabolism – breathing, converting energy , producing waste
But – biologist are still debating what is a real organism or what is life especially
w/ robots & machinery this area is becoming complicated/ complex
oAlso issues w/ virus could only reproduce independently w/out a host
How is ALL life on earth Related?
Consists of organized cells – multicellular vs. singular organism (some protist, bacteria,
archebacteria, some algae)
Contain heritable genetic information for reproduction (asexual such as cell division,
binary fission OR complicated/ elaborated such as sexual reproduction)
Show growth ( and development)
oUnicellular – grow to certain size and that will trigger for asexual reproduction
oDevelopment most shows up in multi-cellular organism such as in internal organs
Responds to environmental stimuli - could make adjustment to sustain or enhance
surivial such as adjusting pH, temperature or nutritional differences
Maintain homeostasis ( a condition in which the various parameters w/in organisms are
maintained at fairly stable / constant level)
oE.g. maintain body temperature at stable level (~37 C) if high or low
means illness
oAlso pH, saliently, nutritional at level that ensure organisms metabolism function
optimally or not at all (e.g. w/ enzymes)
oProf research – Uncliona ( Protist & algae) - this organism shows up in waste from
mine site that generate acid (~pH level of 2.5 – 3) this organism is fully
functional & photosynthetic while its internal pH is ~7 (eukaryotic)
4 magnitude level difference in pH b/w internal membrane & outside but
survive by maintaining homeostasis

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Use/covert energy & matter for biological function (=metabolism) - take matter (e.g.
nutrients) from outside world & break down this matter into various forms of energy
(ultimately to energy currency ATP) that allows the organism to live , grow, and
Adapt to environmental change
ow/ evolution through natural selection (if change time is relative to their lifespan)
obut if it change very quickly or much faster that generation time of a particular
organism - they may not be able to adapt in time the reason why some
species’ population drop very low & may go extinct in time
Common Themes in Biology
Cell – all organism starts out of cell ( cells are basic units of living organism)
Heritable information – enclosed in DNA molecules & enable the organism to pass info
to the next generation
Emergent Properties - are revealed at higher levels of hierarchical biological system
Regulation – Feedback mechanism regulate biological system maintaining homeostasis
oThese system tell organism about the conditions of the outside & inside environment
- as result could change inside environment to maintain homeostasis
Environment Interaction – organisms are open systems exchanging energy & materials w/
the environment
Energy Flow – organisms perform work that requires energy that flow from sunlight to
producers to consumers
Diversity/ Unity - (this is important theme to this course) they are kind like
opposite side of a coin
oHave lot of diversity of life that shows diverse ways of survival BUT at the same
time there exists a unity b/w these organism/ species via organisation of diversity
into taxonomic hierarchy based on similarities
These similarities are what suggest that all life of earth came from a single
common ancestor around 3.8 billion years ago Evolution
Evolution - via natural selection is CORE THEME that explains both diversity & unity
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