BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Population Genetics, Mendelian Inheritance, Macroevolution

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Microevolution & population genetics: earth formed 4. 5 billion years ago, life on earth 3. 5 billion years ago, human existence accounts 0. 0000 . 7 years, evolution: change through time, biological evolution: Populations evolve, individuals don"t: penicillin, product of penicillium mould, represents evolved response to bacteria, 4 years of use: 14% of staphylococcus strains resistant, 1950: >50% resistant, resistant bacteria kills 30-40k americans yearly, microevolution: Changes between species: microevolution: heritable variation in genetics of a population, population: individuals of species at same time & place, microevolution under strong natural selection i. e. antibiotic resistance, phenotypic variation: Can be measured i. e. height: qualitative variation: Recombination (crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilization: can assess observable phenotypic variation (when phenotype = genotype) Snapdragons: can measure genetic variation directly. Live in same area & interbreed, producing fertile offspring. Individuals within population must differ genetically for evolution to occur: not all populations are evolving, populations:

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