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Lecture 1

BIOA01H3 Lecture 1: Module 2 All Lecture Notes

10 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Shelley Brunt

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Molecules of Life: Macromolecules
How Do we Differentiate from Non-Living things:
- Complex
- Respond to the environment
- Reproduce
- Evolve.
All organisms are subjected to the physical law of the universe
o 1st Law of Thermo: total energy is constant. But forms can change
o 2nd Law of Thermo: degree of disorder in the universe incrs.
Energy is required to create order.
Entropy is the amount of disorder
High levels of organization would violate this law. However, it
is released by heat.
Cells are the simplest self-replicating unit of life.
Atom: a dense central nucleus made up of protons and electrons.
o Electrons move around the nucleus
o Orbitals exist in different energy shells. Valence is the highest
o In rxn’s atoms keep their identity but change what they’re bonded too
o Combine together to form molecules.
1. Covalent: share (gasses)
2. Polar Covalent uneven distribution of e. (water)
3. Hydrogen Bonds. Btwn 2 water molecules. +H bonds w/ -O
4. Ionic opposite charges (metal+non-metal)
Water: A Polar Molecule + Hydrogen Bonds, The Medium of Life.
o Hydrophilic: water lovin. This is why water is the best solvent
o Hydrophobic: fear of water. Non-polar, like oil.
Drives a bunch of biological processes.
o Freezes: most water molecules form an open crystalline structure-ice
less dense then water. Why ice floats on water, and lakes freeze from
the top down.
o When it melts: the H bond breaks and becomes more dense again.
o Cohesion: high surface tension
o Some simple carbon molecules and ammonia are similar to water
o Water is neutral (7) but lakes might be a bit acidic b/c of carbon
dioxide dissolves in the water forming carbonic acid.
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Carbon: Backbone of Macromolecules
o Carbon containing molecules are called organic molecules.
o Proteins: provides structural support, acts as a catalytic
o Nucleic Acids: encode genetic info
o Carbohydrates: energy source
o Lipids: structure. Make up cell membranes.
o Majority of F(x) groups are polar.
Robin Hooke
o Major advance of the microscope
Nucleotides: subunits of Nucleic Acids
o Primidine Bases: Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
o Purine Bases: Guanine and Adenosine
o It’s beneficial for hydrogen bonds to form btwn. Nucleotides. B/c H-
Bonds are weak and are easy to break during transcription.
Carbohydrates: sugars composed of C, H, O
o Simplest: saccharides. Can be linear, mostly cyclic. Contain 5-6 C.
o Sugars w/ Aldehyde sugars: aldose sugars
o Sugars w/ Ketones: ketose sugars.
o Those sugars are isomers. Same formula, but diff. arrangements
Monosaccharides: In Cells they are in ring form.
o Forms a covalent bond w/ the oxygen of the hydroxyl group carried
by another carbon in the same molecule
o Glycosidic Bonds joins these sugars together
o the formation of these bonds involved the loss of a water molecule
Lipids:
o Are defined whether they are hydrophobic
o Vanderwal Forces: membrane fluidity depends on the length of the
HC chain. As that incrs. so does the saturation and the melting point
b/c you’ll need more energy to break it.
Non covalent bonds w/ their fatty acid tails.
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1. Fatty acids: HC chains attached to a carboxyl group @ the end
a. Saturated: no double bonds. Maximum amount of
hydrogen. Straight line.
b. Unsaturated: double bonds. Not straight.
2. Triacylglycerol: made up of 3 fatty acids joined to glycerol
a. Used for energy storage.
b. Hydrophobic
3. Steroids: 20 Carbon bonds to form rings
a. Cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes
b. Precursor for the synthesis of hormones (estrogen +
testosterone)
c. Membrane fluidity depends on: temperature
i. The lower the temp, INCRS. Membrane fluidity
ii. b/c the amphipathic structure allows it pack tightly
with the phospholipid
4. Phospholipid
a. Made up of a glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids
b. Major component of a cell membrane
c. Membrane fluidity depends on temp. (colder more fluid)
Cell Membrane:
- Common type of lipid: PHOSPHOLIPID
- Made up of 2 lipid layers.
o Head: hydrophilic, glycerol, PO4, and a polar group
o Tail: phobic: fatty acid, non polar group
- Amphipathic: when molecules are both hydrophobic and hydrophilic
Lipid Structures Arrangement
- Micelles: HEAD LARGE AND BULKY 1 TAIL. Create spheres
- Bilayer: contain SMALLER heads, but have 2 tails. W/ a closed structure.
- Liposomes: enclosed bilayers
- Phospholipids are able to arrange themselves spontaneously
- Membranes are dynamic. Forming and reforming in the lifetime of the cell
- Phospholipids are able to go btwn layers, but its very rare. Requires an
enzymatic reaction.
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Description
Molecules of Life: Macromolecules How Do we Differentiate from Non-Living things: - Complex - Respond to the environment - Reproduce - Evolve. All organisms are subjected to the physical law of the universe o 1 Law of Thermo: total energy is constant. But forms can change o 2 Law of Thermo: degree of disorder in the universe incrs. Energy is required to create order. Entropy is the amount of disorder High levels of organization would violate this law. However, it is released by heat. Cells are the simplest self-replicating unit of life. Atom: a dense central nucleus made up of protons and electrons. o Electrons move around the nucleus o Orbitals exist in different energy shells. Valence is the highest o In rxns atoms keep their identity but change what theyre bonded too o Combine together to form molecules. 1. Covalent: share (gasses) 2. Polar Covalent uneven distribution of e. (water) 3. Hydrogen Bonds. Btwn 2 water molecules. +H bonds w/ -O 4. Ionic opposite charges (metal+non-metal) Water: A Polar Molecule + Hydrogen Bonds, The Medium of Life. o Hydrophilic: water lovin. This is why water is the best solvent o Hydrophobic: fear of water. Non-polar, like oil. Drives a bunch of biological processes. o Freezes: most water molecules form an open crystalline structure-ice less dense then water. Why ice floats on water, and lakes freeze from the top down. o When it melts: the H bond breaks and becomes more dense again. o Cohesion: high surface tension o Some simple carbon molecules and ammonia are similar to water o Water is neutral (7) but lakes might be a bit acidic b/c of carbon dioxide dissolves in the water forming carbonic acid. Carbon: Backbone of Macromolecules o Carbon containing molecules are called organic molecules. o Proteins: provides structural support, acts as a catalytic o Nucleic Acids: encode genetic info o Carbohydrates: energy source o Lipids: structure. Make up cell membranes. o Majority of F(x) groups are polar. Robin Hooke o Major advance of the microscope Nucleotides: subunits of Nucleic Acids o Primidine Bases: Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil o Purine Bases: Guanine and Adenosine o Its beneficial for hydrogen bonds to form btwn. Nucleotides. B/c H- Bonds are weak and are easy to break during transcription. Carbohydrates: sugars composed of C, H, O o Simplest: saccharides. Can be linear, mostly cyclic. Contain 5-6 C. o Sugars w/ Aldehyde sugars: aldose sugars o Sugars w/ Ketones: ketose sugars. o Those sugars are isomers. Same formula, but diff. arrangements Monosaccharides: In Cells they are in ring form. o Forms a covalent bond w/ the oxygen of the hydroxyl group carried by another carbon in the same molecule o Glycosidic Bonds joins these sugars together o the formation of these bonds involved the loss of a water molecule Lipids: o Are defined whether they are hydrophobic o Vanderwal Forces: membrane fluidity depends on the length of the HC chain. As that incrs. so does the saturation and the melting point b/c youll need more energy to break it. Non covalent bonds w/ their fatty acid tails.1. Fatty acids: HC chains attached to a carboxyl group @ the end a. Saturated: no double bonds. Maximum amount of hydrogen. Straight line. b. Unsaturated: double bonds. Not straight. 2. Triacylglycerol: made up of 3 fatty acids joined to glycerol a. Used for energy storage. b. Hydrophobic 3. Steroids: 20 Carbon bonds to form rings a. Cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes b. Precursor for the synthesis of hormones (estrogen + testosterone) c. Membrane fluidity depends on: temperature i. The lower the temp, INCRS. Membrane fluidity ii. b/c the amphipathic structure allows it pack tightly with the phospholipid 4. Phospholipid
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