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Lecture 20

BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Triglyceride, Glycogen, Glycerol

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Storage Forms of Glucose
o Excess glucose is stored in two forms
Starch in plants
Glycogen is animals
o Large branched polymers of glucose
o Future source of glucose
o Storage carbohydrates allows for regulation of glucose
o Glycogen
Is stored in muscle cells and liver cells
When stored in muscle cells, it is used to provide ATP for muscle contraction
The liver stores glycogen for the whole body, releasing it when it is needed
o How are glucose molecules released?
They are cleaved at the end of glycogen chains
One at a time to yield glucose 1-phosphate, which is then converted into
glucose 6-phosphate, an intermediate in glycolysis
Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids
o The break down of lipids to produce electron carriers
o Lipids
o Are a good source of energy
o Rich in carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
o After a meal, the small intestine absorbs triacylglycerols and either consumes them or
stores them in fat tissue
o These lipids are broken down inside cells to glycerol and fatty acids
o The fatty acids are shortened by -oxidation, which removes 2-carbon units from their
o NADH and FADH2 are produced
o Yields more ATP than the breakdown of glucose but is much slower
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