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Lecture 33

BIOA01H3 Lecture 33: Module 3 Lecture 33.docx


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Effiette Sauer
Lecture
33

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Module 3
Lecture 33: Transcription
Outline
Transcription Process
Splicing of mRNA
Mutation in DNA sequence
Regulation of Transcription
Note:
When a human egg and sperm ell meet they create a bunch of specialized cells, the cells
have the same genes but differ in structure and function because of the certain genes that
are activated.
How is a gene regulated in transcription and translation?
Transcriptional Regulation
oRegulates which genes are transcribed
In initiation and chromatin remodeling
Post-transcriptional Regulation
oDetermines the types and availability of mRNA to ribosomes
Translational Regulation
oDetermines the rate of proteins made
Variation in rate of protein initiation
Post-Translational Regulation
oDetermines availability of finished protein
Variation in rate of protein processing
Removal of marking segments
Rate of protein breakdown
Transcription process
Transferring the information coded on DNA sequences of genes to complementary
RNA copies.
Initiation: Assembly to promoter
oTranscription factor binds to the TATA box in the promoter
oRNA polymerase II binds
Elongation: Extending the RNA chain
oRNA Polymerase II unwinds DNA 5’-3’
oAdds AUG to mRNA strand
Termination: RNA transcript and RNA polymerase are released
oPoly A polymerase adds a tail of As to mRNA
50-250 adenine nucleotides on the 3 end
Protects mRNA from RNA digesting enzyme
mRNA
In prokaryotes coding region on each side of 5’-3 untranslated regions
In eukaryotes coding region on each side of 5’-3 untranslated regions
oProcessed in nucleus (pre mRNA to produce translate mRNA)
o5 cap (reversed guanine nucleotide)
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