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Sanchika K
Nov.26.10
Bio Final Exam notes
Biology
Chapter 6: ENERGY, ENZYMES, AND METABOLISM
What Physical Principles govern Biological Energy Transformations?
energy transformations:
- are a property of life
- are linked to chemical transformations in cells
- occur through
Metabolic pathways
Metabolic Pathways
cells are miniature factories where thousands of reactions occur constantly and
simultaneously
all cells require a constant input of energy to offset increasing tendency toward
disorder =
entropy
energy obtained through metabolism
metabolism= total of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism or a specific
set of reactions (photosynthesis/ respiratory metabolism)
occur in small highly regulated controlled steps
product of one reaction is a reactant for next reaction
each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme
are compartmentalized
regulated by feedback reaction
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Sanchika K
Nov.26.10
Bio Final Exam notes
that act as control mechanisms.
Metabolism exhibits 2 Types of Reactions:
1)Anabolic Reaction (e.g photosynthesis)
Synthetic reactions
Simple molecules linked together to form complex molecule
Energy is required and stored in chemical bonds
2)Catabolic Reaction
Degradative reaction
Complex molecule are broken down into simpler molecules
Energy is released from broken chemical bonds
Laws of Thermodynamics and Life
energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed in form
disorder tends to increase because of energy transformations
living organisms need energy for life processes
living things obey the laws of thermodynamics
organisms are open systems that are part of a larger closed system
living organism must have a constant input of energy to maintain order
Metabolism transforms Matter and Energy
Energy = the capacity to do work or the capacity to change
Kinetic Energy = energy of motion; includes energy that does work
Potential Energy = energy of state or position
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Document Summary

En e rgy, enzy m es, an d metabol is m. What physical principles govern biological energy t ransformations? energy transformations: Are linked to chemical transformations in cells. Bio final exam notes that act as control mechanisms. Metabolism exhibits 2 types of reactions: anabolic reaction (e. g photosynthesis) Simple molecules linked together to form complex molecule. Energy is required and stored in chemical bonds: catabolic reaction. Complex molecule are broken down into simpler molecules. Metabolism transforms matter and energy: energy = the capacity to do work or the capacity to change, kinetic energy = energy of motion; includes energy that does work, potential energy = energy of state or position www. notesolution. com. Includes energy stored in- chemical bonds: concentration gradient, charge imbalance, potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy. Changes in free energy change tells reaction type changes in free energy (g), total energy or enthalpy (h), temperature (t), and entropy (s) are related by the equation:

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