BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Pyruvic Acid, Glycolysis, Cellular Respiration

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24 Apr 2012
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Bio Notes
Glycolysis: the breaking down of glucose
Can occur with or without oxygen
xvdWithout oxygen, it goes into fermentation
With oxygen it goes into the Kreb’s Cycle then the electron transport chain
Most of the ATP is produced in the electron transport chain
2 ATPs are used to start off glycolysis
The glucose is broken into two 3 carbon molecules with a phosphate attached to it (PGAL’
phosphloglyceraldehyde)
It goes through a “payoff phase) and create 2 pyruvate molecules; two ATPs and one NADH per
pyruvate
Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2ATP + 4ADP + 4 phosphate groups 2 Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ADP + 4ATPS
Net gain: 2 ATPs, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvates
Kreb’s Cycle
Glycolysis results in the production of 2 pyruvates, 2ATPs, and 2NADHs
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
Kreb’s cycle takes place in the inner space of the mitochondria
Pyruvate gets oxidized into a 2 carbon molecule called Acetyl CoA; NAD+ is reduced to NADH
Acetyl CoA is catalyzed by oxaloacetic acid (a 4 carbon molecule) by enzymes, and creates a 6
carbon molecule called citric acid
6 NADH, 2ATP and 2FADH2 are created in the Kreb’s cycle
With both glycolysis and Kreb’s cycles, 4ATPs, 10NADHs, and 2FADH2 are created
In the electron transport chain, 3ATPs are created per NADH, totalling in 30ATPs
2ATPs are produced per FADH2 molecule
Electron Transport Chain
Oxidation of NADH: NADH NAD+ + H+ + 2e-
Reduction of oxygen into water: 2e + H+ + ½ O2 H2O
Kreb’s cycle occurs in the matrix
Oxidation and reduction reactions are happening in protein complexes in the membrane of the
matrix
They are pumping out hydrogen ions into the outer membrane
As the hydrogen is being pumped, it is making the outer membrane more acidic because
hydrogen ion concentration is increasing
As the hydrogen ions get pumped back into the matrix through the protein ATP synthase
(chemiosmosis), it squeezes an ADP and a phosphate group together to make ATP (oxidative
phosphorylation)
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