BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Horizontal Gene Transfer, Gram Staining, Cell Wall

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Prokaryotes make up two of the three domains of life: archaea and bacteria (third domain is eukaraya) Thrive almost everywhere (including extreme habitats to hostile for most organisms) Show remarkable diversity (greatest metabolic diversity of all organisms) Appear simple in structure compared to eukaryotic cells. Classified into two domains that differ in structure, physiology and biochemistry. Bacteria: most familiar to us as they are responsible for disease in humans and other animals (some essential for health and some used in food production like cheese, yogurt etc. ) Archaea: only discovered about 40 years ago so not well known. Share similar cellular features with eukaryotes and some with bacteria (some also unique features to. Many can live under extreme conditions that no other organisms (including bacteria) can survive: prokaryotic morphology. Smallest organisms in the world (1 to 10 m. Three common shapes (spiral, spherical or coccoid and cylindrical or rods; rare square cells: prokaryotic structure.

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