Topography (specific movements involved in a particular response, needs guidelines) Amount (frequency, duration, relative duration-amount of time in given period) Latency (amount of time between behaviour and a response) Quality (how well a behaviour is performed, refinement of other characteristics) Stimulus control (under which conditions does a behaviour occur?) When it is impractical to observe the client in the situations in which the target behaviour occurs. The goals of assessment for behavioural approaches are to identify behavioural excesses or deficits, and to identify the causes of problem behaviour. The goals of assessment for psychodiagnostic approaches to assessment are to diagnose/classify individuals and to identify intrapsychic or trait causes of behaviour. The method of assessment for behavioural approach is direct observation. A minimal behaviour modification program shows that during treatment, behaviour improves as compared to baseline (and hopefully persists during follow-up). Single-case designs look at individual variance in behaviour across a number of sessions.