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CA (630,000)
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BIOA02H3 (600)
Lecture

MODULE 1 - LECTURE 1: Tree of Life (Very Detailed)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Mary Olaveson

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BIOA02: MODULE 1 – LECTURE 1: Tree of Life
-5 main groups of plants: bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperm,
angiosperm,
-3 domains: Prokarya, Eukarya, Archea
-plants = Eukarya
-oldest fossils are 3.65 billion years ago
-1.2 billion ago first photosynthetic precursors of plants (green
algae) appears photosynthesis kicked off with production of oxygen
and atmosphere which create environment conducive to life
-earliest type of plant = bryophtes however, don’t know exactly when
they evolved (because they are soft therefore hard to find fossils)
-four main groups of bryophytes: liverworts, mosses (2 kinds),
hornworts
-group of plants with most species=angiosperms
-groups of plants with least species=gymnosperms
*don’t need to know number of species in each group but where they
are relative to the number of species
-bryophytes like to grow in moist environments (forests, creeks)
-liverworts: flattened bodies which grow right on top of soil, from
flattened body they grow reproductive structures (umbrella-shaped)
Male grow Antheridia where male reproductive structure is
produced
Female grow Archegonia where male reproductive structure is
produced
-mosses (the largest brypphyte group) examples: peat moss (found
in moist environement)
-mosses grow like flattened Christmas trees
-hornworts: similar to liverworts (flattened species) but different
because they have horn-shaped reproductive systems
-in mosses, haploid generation is more dominant
-in liverworts: Male reproductive organs are called Spermatozoids
have two flagella which helps it move to female reproductive system
(Archegonium) which has a single egg cell
SO ANTHERIDIUM CONTAINS SPERMATOZOIDS and ARCHEGONIUM
HAVE EGG CELLS
-all the tissues are haploids
-there needs to be a thin film of water where the spermatozoids can
swim from male to female gametophytes and a diploid zygote can be
formed
-seta holds up the spore capsule seta and spore capsule are the
result of the fertilization seta and spore capsule are sporophytes
-gametophyte = haplod, seta and spore capsule = diploid
-spore capsule is protected by a HAPLOID Calyptra material which falls
off when the spores are ripe and the spores are dispersed into the air
and can go long distances
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