BIOA02 MODULE 2 Lec 13 Introduction to Animal Physiology

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27 Feb 2012

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BIOA02 MODULE 2 Lec 13: Introduction to Animal Physiology
February 07, 2012
Overview of Different Systems
-nervous and endocrine systems are both control and regulatory
-function of nerves in non-human animals are similar to humans
-skin is the first line of defense that keeps pathogens out
-some fish called cartilaginous fish which have skeleton made up of
-hummingbird have the fastest muscle on record
-some animals have skeleton on the outside exoskeleton
-some fish have the ability to raise the temperature of their muscles
core of muscles in their body which generate and trap heat
-circulatory, lymphatic and respiratory system is usually talked about
-fish breathe using gills but a few fish breathe air i.e. lung fish have
to breathe air or else they die, they have gills but they don’t function
-human lungs are subdivided into alveoli
-frog lungs have lungs that are like a bag of air rudimentary,
primitive lung
-reptilian lungs are more complex than amphibian lungs
-it was always thought that these animals couldn’t run and breathe at
the same time but this is not true
-bird lungs resemble the dinosaur lungs
-human heart is a four chambered heart (so is a fish heart but this goes
in series)
-amphibian heart has two atria with only one ventricle poses
problem in terms of mixing oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
-human digestive system mouth to anus
-excretory system kidneys
-diverticulosis older people who had a poor fibre diet holes
-some animals have other organs that take on the role of kidneys
-fish rely on gills to function as a kidney (though they do have kidneys)
-marine birds have salt glands above eyes secrete excess ions
through the tears
-kangaroo rat has urine 10X more concentrated than a human
Types of Physiology
-medical/clinical physiology work is done to understand physiological
mechanisms with the goal of treating a human disease conditions
-done in universities, hospitals, biology departments
-tend to focus on rodent models
-then goes onto clinical trials
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