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Chapter 52: Ecology and the Distribution of Life (Lecture 19)

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kamini Persaud

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Dr. K. Persaud
Lecture 19 (video)
Chapter 52
Ecology and the Distribution of Life
What is Ecology?
๎€The study of interactions between different species and the environment
๎€Biotic and abiotic are enclosed within an ecosystem๎€community
How are Climates Distributed on Earth?
๎€Climate: the average atmospheric condition over a long-term ๎€ varies mainly due to
solar energy
1.Angle that light hits the earth
2.Amount of earthโ€™s atmosphere passed through
oHigher latitudes receive less solar energy than the equator
๎€‚At about 30 degrees north and south air descends, picking up moisture
with increasing pressure (deserts)
๎€‚Wind travels towards the equator creating, causing evaporations and
condensation near the tropics
๎€‚Cooled air from the north and south to the equator meet at the
โ€œintertropical convergence zoneโ€ where it rises and releases moisture
(heavy rains)
๎€‚At 60 degrees north and south, air rises again, releasing moisture, and
descends at the poles (picking up moisture ๎€ dry areas).
๎€‚As the earth spins faster at the equator than poles. Air masses
deflected right in north hemisphere and left in the south hemisphere,
creating โ€œwesterliesโ€ and โ€œtrade windsโ€

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โ€ขInfluences how currents move
๎€‚When air travels over a mountain, it releases a lot of water in the air,
and when it descends, it hits a โ€œrain shadowโ€ where the air takes away
the moisture making the other side of the mountain dry
What is Biome?
๎€A biome is a terrestrial environment defined by the growth forms of its plants
oBiomes are defined by:
๎€‚Patterns of temperature and precipitation strongly influence the
distribution of plants
๎€‚Activity of different types of organisms throughout the year
๎€‚Growth forms of plants, as well as patterns of species richness (# of
oTypes of Biomes:
โ€ขlow temperature and precipitation: Arctic and at high
โ€ขrelatively flat, and not much vegetation (shrubs)
โ€ขlayer of permafrost: frozen layer under the soils that never
thaws and does not allow for drainage
โ€ขmigratory animals, or hibernators
๎€‚Boreal Forest
โ€ขNormal latitude, but lots of evergreens (no need to lose and
regrow leaves ๎€ can quickly synthesize in summer)
โ€ขCold, long winters, and short winters
โ€ขMigratory birds
๎€‚Temperate Deciduous Forest
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