Lec13 - Introduction to Physiology.doc

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22 Apr 2012
Introduction to Physiology
Slide One – physiological systems from a human perspective
Nervous and endocrine systems are control systems of the body
Nervous System
oThe brain (central nervous system) receives information from various
regions of the body through peripheral nerves which will then be sent
out through either motor control signals to muscles or via somatic
nerves to various organs and glands
Endocrine System
oSimilarly it is a control / regulatory system
oThere are a number of endocrine glands throughout the body which
produce and secrete hormones circulated in the blood that have an
influence on organ structures
These two systems can be known as the command and control regulatory
Slide Two – physiological systems from a non-human perspective
The functions of the nervous and endocrine system are very similar as we look
at other animals
There can also be a number of differences
oThe organization of neurons can be different from what we see in
Looking at individual nerves, the function in animals are similar to what we see
in humans and other animals
Slide Three – physiological systems from a human perspective
Muscular / Skeletal / Integumentary Systems serve the purposes of movement /
support / binding us together / defence
oIntegumentary system is the human skin system\
oFirst line of defence to keep things out
We use muscles to move, there are various types of muscles
Skeletal muscles are used to move around
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oSmooth muscles help for example to propel food in the gut
Slide Four – physiological systems from a non-human perspective
Other than the size and shape of the head, many skeletal systems are similar
A bird skeleton differs from the human skeleton because birds have hollow
bones which make them lighter for flight
Cartilaginous fish have skeletal systems made up of cartilage instead of bones
Muscle function in birds are similar to humans and animals
Hummingbirds are on crack beating their wings at more than 100 times /
oThe mechanisms for muscle contractions in hummingbirds are
significantly different than in human or other animal systems
Invertebrates have their skeleton on the outside called the exoskeleton
Fish are cold blooded, they adapt their body temperature to that of the
oNot always so:
oHave the ability to raise their internal temperature of their muscles and
keep it 50-100 degrees higher than the rest of their body and the
oCore of muscles generate heat and trap heat
Slide Five – human perspective
Respiratory system’s job is to obtain oxygen and to excrete carbon dioxide
Circulatory system delivers oxygen to the body and takes metabolic carbon
dioxide to the lungs where its excreted
Cardio-respiratory functions are intimately linked
Any fluid that leaks out of the circulatory system is drained back into the
circulatory system through the lymph
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Slide Six – non-human perspective
Looking at cardiovascular and respiratory systems between humans and
animals you see a number of differences appearing
oFish breathe using gills with the exception of fish that breathe air
compared to water
-e.g. lungfish
Human lungs are sub-divided into tiny compartments called alveoli
oThere are so many subdivisions (millions and millions) that if you took a
cross section of a human lung, it would appear solid
oCompared to a frog lung which is essentially just a bag with air with a
few ridges on the inner surface
There are no subdivisions into smaller compartments in an
amphibian lung
Reptilian lungs are a little more complex than amphibian lungs
oYou see division of the lungs into a few chambers
oNowhere near as subdivided as the human / mammalian lung
oIt was thought that reptiles couldn’t run and breathe at the same time
The same muscles used to breathe (inflate their lungs) are are
used to run
This is true to a certain extent (they are limited in their ability to
run) but they can breathe to some degree
The bird lung looks nothing like the amphibian / reptilian / mammalian lung
oNot an intermediate
oResembles a dinosaur lung
Human heart is completely divided into left and right side with four chambers
Fish hearts are also four chambered, but they are arranged in series rather
than in a parallel arrangement in comparison to a human heart
Amphibian heart looks like a human heart, but it has two atria and only one
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