Chapter 54: Population Ecology (Lecture Notes)

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Published on 7 Apr 2011
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Chapter 54: Population Ecology
Mar 29/2011
How do ecologists study populations?
Population: all the individuals of a species in an area
Population structure: age distribution of individuals, and how they spread over
the environment
Density influences how individuals interact
Demographic events: births, deaths, emigration, immigration,
These events create population dynamicsstudy of demography
Tracking individuals:
Individuals are often tagged and marked marking recapture method
Tracking devicescomputer chips that are embedded in an animal for real
time results (heartbeat, temperature, etc.)
Molecular markersreflect the latitude and longitude of migrated areas,
hydrogen levels, etc.
Measuring Population Density:
Counting every individual in a population is often not possible
Statistical methods estimate population from a sample
1.Capture, Mark, Recapture
2.Life Tablea cohort (group of the same individuals) is selected, and
examined over a time period, comparing survival rate, and mortality rate
Predicts future trends
3.Survivorship curvesplotted data that shows the relationship in relation
to age
High survivorship whole life
Gradual decline
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Document Summary

 population: all the individuals of a species in an area.  population structure: age distribution of individuals, and how they spread over the environment.  demographic events: births, deaths, emigration, immigration: these events create population dynamicsstudy of demography. Individuals are often tagged and marked  marking recapture method: tracking devicescomputer chips that are embedded in an animal for real time results (heartbeat, temperature, etc. , molecular markersreflect the latitude and longitude of migrated areas, hydrogen levels, etc.  measuring population density: counting every individual in a population is often not possible, statistical methods. Life history: how an individual allocates its time and energy among various activities throughout its life, and how it effects is life.  all populations have the potential for explosive growth.  exponential growth: constant rate, but exponential growth occurs, rmax intrinsic rate of increase (rate of population growth under optimal conditionremoves in-check factor, environmental limits cause birth and death (poverty, etc. )

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