BIOA11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Neutral Mutation, Nuclear Transfer, Threonine

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How and why they are modified to suit our needs: made by genetically engineered bacteria, bacterial dna was manipulated to carry instructions (genes) for making bgh, in cows, growth hormones increase body size and milk production. Lecture 8: genetically modified organisms concepts: gene expression and human cloning. Made using laboratory techniques to alter genetic traits in an organism (dna level changes) Pioneering genetic engineering: early 1980s: production of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbgh) Protein synthesis: the process of using instructions carried by genes to build proteins: gene: a sequence of dna that encodes a protein, protein: a large molecule composed of amino acids, involves dna and rna with multiple steps. Dna: double-stranded, nucleotide subunit, four bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. Rna: single-stranded, nucleotide subunit, four bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and uracil. Transcription (dna rna: occurs in the nucleus, forms messenger rna (mrna)

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