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Important Terms and Definitions

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Aarti Ashok

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x A cell is the smallest unit of life
x Anton van Leeuwenhoek examined pond water under microscope and discovered what he
called ^v]uoµo_
x Cells are capable of producing more of themselves through mitosis and meiosis
x Cells respond to stimuli using cell surface proteins that are called ^}_
Types of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes
x ^}uµv]µZ]]}(}lÇ}ZZÇ}v[]À]Çu]}]}u]}]V
instead they divide by binary fission
x A unique characteristic of a eukaryote is that is has a membrane bound nucleus called the
nuclear membrane
x Fossil records have proven that prokaryotes came first
x Cyanobacteria uZ(]^o_À]vt they resemble a chloroplast
x The two major groups of prokaryotes are called Archaea (archaebacteria)vthat are
extremophiles/thermophiles that live in very high temperatures and Bacteria (eubacteria) t
referring to all other bacteria
x There are two types of eukaryotic cells : unicellular (eg. protists) and multicellular (eg. humans)
x HeLa cells discovered/used by Henrietta Lax refers to tumour tissue t used in cell culture/cell
line: primary cultures that have undergone genetic modifications to allow them to grow
indefinitely in culture
x Neurons
x In elect}vu]}}Ç~DÁZo}vµZ^o]PZ_}µVZZ}
wavelength gives the higher resolution
x Stem cells are undifferentiated cells
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